My cuppa tea

A day to day bit of design incorporated into every day life. I’m surprised this design hasn’t been done before, but it appears that everyday novelties/ design/ gadgets have been in trend with online shops such as SUCK UK. I love that website, it sells unique everyday “kitsch” items which turns everyday bland objects to become fun.

The design is similar to the pantone colour charts with a rectangular colour fill box at the top and a white label with black san serif text at the bottom. I think most designers would like this mug because of its novelty and reference to the pantone chart which is geeky.


1. Feedback (info & design): Simon Locksley

Review of feedback: I think that Simon is right in that I should show the fish as a giant swarm together to effectively show the decrease in numbers. I could maybe shape the graph using lots of the different fishes with each line being a different layer of fish. However it would be difficult when the lines overlap each other – I could play with the opacity of the fishes to show that the figures are the same.

I’m not sure/ don’t agree with having a textures wave fill as a background image because I think that would be very distracting and that the two styles would not go together: being flat 2D fill shapes against a photography background.

Felice Varini – Anamorphic Illusions


The use of yellow reminds me of NUCA because the university has that in their visual identity. I think that this effect can be applied to any room to make it more dynamic and interesting. It’s cool how a little strip of colour on walls can change it visually. It could be applied to the walls at uni I think as the buildings are rather white and grey.

Alternative fish


Consumers are favouring coley, dab, mussels, squid and sardines over the staple salmon, cod and tuna following the programmes last week, which highlighted the wasteful use of “discard” in fishing practices while encouraging shoppers to take the pressure off popular fish stocks by being more adventurous in what they eat.

The cook and Guardian writer Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, credited with boosting demand for higher-welfare chicken three years ago, has taken the lead in the new campaign.Programmes from fellow chef Jamie Oliver have shown consumers new ways of cooking less popular species such as mussels, squid and trout.

Sainsbury’s said sales of “bycatch” from its fresh fish counter had been “promising” overall, while sales of pollack had leapt by 167% week on week. It said customers had responded well to the fish featured in Jamie Oliver’s programmes with sales of British and MSC-certified mackerel up 60% and mussels up 16%.

Sales of its sustainable “line and pole caught” canned tuna increased by 17% over the last week, while sales of organic salmon grew by 16% and normal salmon sales remained unchanged.

Tesco, the UK’s biggest fish retailer, said it had seen an increase in sales of between 25 and 45% for fresh sardines, coley, brown crab, sprats and whiting in the week since the first programmes. It said in a statement: “We sell around 40 species of fish on our fresh counters and our staff are trained to advise customers on trying new varieties. Sales of fresh cod, herring, mussels, mackerel and canned tuna also increased compared to last week.”

But the supermarket was singled out by Fearnley-Whittingstall for misleading labelling on its canned tuna, leading the company to pledge to catch 100% of its own-brand canned tuna using the “pole and line” method. Tesco last week came fifth out of the major supermarkets in a 2011 league table of sustainable tuna, compiled by Greenpeace.

Waitrose said sales of seafood overall were up by 15% – with most of this increase being attributed to species that have traditionally been less popular. Sales of frozen coley were up by 36%, frozen mackerel up 31% and Dover sole up 163%. A spokeswoman for Waitrose said: “There has also been strong demand for dabs, which we sell frozen. This week we are launching sprats (a fish that has almost been forgotten by UK consumers) and are looking at introducing dabs and coley on our service counters over the coming weeks. We are also introducing Welsh flounder – a species commonly discarded.”

Ally Dingwall, aquaculture and fisheries manager at Sainsbury’s, said: “Fish Fight has had a direct impact on consumer behaviour. It’s encouraging to see a positive shift towards less popular and bycatch fish, and if we can establish continued demand, fishermen will land and sell more of these species, and it may potentially become targeted species. In the last week, our fish sales have risen across the board: from fresh to counter to frozen fish..”

Asda reported “really strong sales across the whole of the fish category in the last week, up 10% on the previous week” with particular growth in the sales of products included in Jamie Oliver’s recipes. Sales of trout fillets, for example, rose by 56%, whole sardines 66% and whole mackerel up by 115%.

Marks & Spencer said it had ordered in over a third more stock than it did for its peak Christmas week. Richard Luney, M&S fish expert, commented: “We had our biggest ever week in the history of M&S on fish sales last week, sales were up 25% versus this time last year. One of the key highlights was on our line–caught tuna that had a record week – so the importance of avoiding purse seined [a large net that catches entire schools of fish] fishing methods obviously really hit home.”

As part of the Fish Fight campaign, consumers have been urged to add their signatures to a letter to the European fisheries minister, Maria Damanaki, calling for the elimination of discards to be elevated to a top priority in the forthcoming review of the European common fisheries policy. Even before the programmes were aired, the letter attracted over 35,000 signatories but this has now risen to well over 500,000. Today, Fearnley-Whittingstall urged consumers: “Please keep spreading the word. Half a million supporters today – less than a week after our shows went out! I wonder if a million sign-ups is a crazy dream … what do you think?”


Tesco, the UK’s biggest fish retailer, reported that pouting sales had reached the level of 50% of the chain’s cod fillet sales. In January, Tesco said sales of fresh sardines, coley, brown crab, sprats and whiting had risen by between 25% and 45% after Fish Fight aired. A spokeswoman told the Guardian sales of popular species such as cod had held steady, despite the rise in alternative fish.

Morrisons said it had seen a three-fold increase in pouting and dab sales, and a 33% increase in coley sales since January. Its spokeswoman said that while consumers had switched away from cod, haddock and salmon in January, sales of those species “soon returned”.

Waitrose said it was now selling three tonnes of fillets a week across alternative species – such as Anglesey seabass fillets, Cornish pollack, Icelandic whiting fillets and Cornish brill fillets – compared with between 45 and 50 tonnes of cod fillets per week. A spokeswoman said that sales of popular species such as cod were “steady” rather than declining.

Asda said that since January, whole mackerel sales were up by 69%, whole sardines up 32% and whole trout up 72%. Sales of cod and haddock have also gone up.

But Sainsburys, which sells £400m worth of fish annually, said it had seen a 2% decrease in sales of the “big five” species. It sold 46 extra tonnes of coley, pouting, rainbow trout, hake and megrim since June after such alternative species were given away for free during a promotion.

Several of the supermarkets said they had been training staff to advise customers on alternative species, as well as running sustainable fish promotions. Marks and Spencer did not respond to requests for fish sales figures.

Will Anderson, the director and producer of Hugh’s Fish Fight, said: “From our point of view, the most important thing is that people need educating on what fish to eat and what to avoid. We don’t know who is buying this fish – whether it is people switching or people who weren’t buying fish before. Also, we don’t know if people can’t find alternative fish and are buying species such as cod as a result.”

On the question of whether the show was driving up overall fish consumption, he said: “We are concerned that may happen, but not worried about it yet, because nobody really knows. As a nation, we are recommended to eat nearly three portions of fish a week. We’re not saying we should all pile in and eat more fish, and we are concerned with overfishing. It’s about making people more aware.”

Tonight’s Fish Fight on Channel 4 will chart the success of the campaign since January, from political achievements – securing a House of Commons debate and being cited as helpful by the EU fisheries commissioner, Maria Damanaki – to changes in the way tuna is caught and labelled, and the campaign’s 700,000 supporters. The new episodes will continue to promote alternative fish and an iPhone app is launched on Monday night to recommend sustainable species.

Fearnley-Whittingstall’s ongoing campaign takes place against the backdrop of European efforts to overhaul drastically the common fisheries policy (CFP). Damanaki has said she wants to phase out discards and in July laid out how she would ensure European fish stocks are “at sustainable levels” by 2015.

Cod, salmon and tuna alone account for more than half of all fish eaten in the UK. Globally, in 2008, 42 million tonnes were taken out of oceans – a demand that is forecast to rise, particularly from China, according to the UN.

Teabag packaging


I like the shape of this packaging, I find it cute that it looks like a small piece of fruit. Made from a cross shaped net, the flaps are gathered together to form a dome.

The flaps open up to expose a tea bag, I don’t think this practical is practical but I think it’ll bring an experience for the consumer and a different application in making tea. Also the flaps could stop the tea bag string from dropping into the drink, however if the cup is very big then the packaging would fall into the tea.


URL – – Sat 10 March

• Half of all fish caught in the north sea are thrown back overboard dead

• Others are prime cod, haddock, plaice and other popular food species that are “over-quota”. The quota system is intended to protect fish stocks by setting limits on how many fish of a certain species should be caught. Fishermen are not allowed to land any over-quota fish; if they accidentally catch them – which they can’t help but do – there is no choice but to throw them overboard before they reach the docks.

• By 2014 all UK tuna suppliers will have changed their fishing methods to protect sharks and turtles.

URL – – Sat 10 March

• Central to the livelihood and food security of 200 million people, especially in the developing world, while one of five people on this planet depends on fish as the primary source of protein.

• The rapid growth in demand for fish and fish products is leading to fish prices increasing faster than prices of meat. As a result, fisheries investments have become more attractive to both entrepreneurs and governments, much to the detriment of small-scale fishing and fishing communities all over the world.

• In the last decade, in the north Atlantic region, commercial fish populations of cod, hake, haddock and flounder have fallen by as much as 95%, prompting calls for urgent measures.

• According to a Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimate, over 70% of the world’s fish species are either fully exploited or depleted.

• The dramatic increase of destructive fishing techniques worldwide destroys marine mammals and entire ecosystems.


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Depleting cod:

North sea cod, Irish sea cod, West of Scotland cod, Celtic Sea cod, North Sea Plaice, Irish Sea Place, North Sea Sole, Irish Sea Sole



1. Tuna (72m tonnes)

Of total fish consumption: 19.2 per cent. Value: £337m

Problems: Yellow-fin, bigeye and bluefin are overfished and dolphins and turtles caught in nets

2. Salmon (47m tonnes)

Of total fish consumption: 12.4 per cent. Value: £632m

Small wild fish such as anchovies fatten farmed salmon. Three kilos produce one kilo of farmed salmon

3. Cod (42m tonnes)

Of total fish consumption: 11.1 per cent. Value: £318m

Problems: Although recovering, North Sea stocks are less than 5 per cent of historic levels. Most of our cod now comes from the Barents Sea and Iceland

4. Prawns (33m tonnes)

Of total fish consumption: 8.9 per cent. Value: £365m

… and what we should eat


A wedge-like fish with a bulbous head, the gurnard wins no beauty contests but is probably the tastiest under-exploited fish in the sea. Fry with mushrooms and thyme


Tiny, cheap fish, best barbecued and served with a mustard dip


Rope-grown mussels are highly sustainable and delicious when cooked in white wine and garlic

Mackerel, sardines and pollock

Currently the sixth, seventh and eighth most popular fish by volume in the UK, they are relatively plentiful and, in the case of mackerel and sardine, rich in fish oils.

Book covers


I like the simplistic shapes which have single colour fills with no shading that express the storyline, on the Wizard of Oz cover, it expressed the three companions of Dorothy in search of a heart, a brain and courage. The heart has been simply reflected horizontally to connote to the Lion’s private parts to symbolise courage. Only simple brown lines changes the meaning of the upside down heart to connote the Lion’s private parts. I think simple things like this makes it clear and concise, however the reader will have to know the story to clearly see what the third symbol means. I think it would make a nice pattern for merchandise too.

The Princess and the Pea is just a simple pattern but the bottom of the pattern has a simple pea. Once again, you would have to know the story to understand what the image is (being loads of beds stacked upon each other). But both covers summarises the story of the contents of the book.


For the booklet, I want to create a simplistic styl which makes use of negative space. I had  some ideas before I went to bed last night and as per usual I was thinking of more and more concepts making the image in my head busy. I  need to stop how I work in making pieces over embellished.


Monocle Spain

Strong use of vector shapes which makes it fresh and visually appealing. It has a look like it is cartoon characters and the colour palettte is fitting with all the colours coming together well and that no colours realy stand out making the infographic balanced visually.

Why “infographic thinking” is the future, not A fad

Francesco Franchi: On visual storytelling and new languages in journalism

“You have to be informative but also entertain the reader”

“”Infographic thinking” doesn’t let designers to interpret a narrative visually; it lets them invite the viewer [to] join in the process of interpretation, too”

“One side we have art and on the other we have information, it’s important to stay in the middle of the spectrum”


Today I woke up to many Facebook wallposts about the video “KONY 2012”, I had seen a few posts of it for the past few weeks but today it was peaking. So I decided to see what this hype was about. The introduction starts showing the power of social networking sites and the internet getting messages across and campaigns. Then the narrator explains about his little son which gives a more compassionate feeling to the video. Another character is introduced being the narrator and the little boy’s friend who suffered in Uganda, being a victim of the child soldiers regime put in place by Kony.

He leads a army of child soldiers, where girls are used as sex slaves and boys as soldiers. Children (as young as the son in the video) are snatched and forced to become a child soldier under Kony which then they are made to kill there own parents. Kony does this for the sense of power. The narrator continues in what action he has taken and the impact he has made with the campaign against Kony. It shoes that he has had support from Barrack Obama and now wants to spread awareness by setting an event worldwide where on the 20th April 2012, people across the world will put posters/ spread the message across the town/ city at night so in the morning following people will be surprised and take notice.

The bit in the video that hit me was when the narrator, said that he made a promise to Jacob, he didn’t know how he was going to achieve it but he strongly felt the need to take action.

As an art specialist university I think this will be an opportunity to create awareness and show the individuals work at NUCA. I like the unity towards doing this for a good cause and yet there is a sense of danger as it is street art therefore putting work up on the event night will be difficult. It would be revolutionary in that it gets the whole world involved especially with the power of the internet by just streaming a video.

Here are some posters I have came across:

Information design

We’ve been set a new brief and I have been looking at some existing information graphics. I first came across these three years ago in The Indepedent and The Guardian which they are mainly used but I found that the popularity have spread across the internet and videos. They are iconic in The Indepedent and The Guardian newspapers.

Here are some internet ones:


This makes the use of typography and with the use of different fonts, it has set a hierachy system. Personally I find the piece quite busy as in there is too much text and it is too cluttered leaving minimal negative space.


This features the use of lines which are commonly used in information/ data graphics especially to show numerical data. They have incorporated the lines in the typography of the letters.

Noma Bar


I really adore this Noma Bar’s work, it works with negative space and it is like an optical illusion where one part of the image is another art seen in a different way. They use complimentary images to build a story/ to show something. I love the simplicity and most of their work just consist of red, white and black, The three colours compliment each other very well.

Metropolis new font


I like this image, the focus is promoting the new font and it is prominent in the image being a sharp white again a grey lit background. I like this piece particularly because of the interweaving legs of the R around the car and the car shows the stem of the inspiration being it is from the 1940’s. Cars can represent alot about a time period, the shape, the colour, materials etc.



I noticed that most information and data representations involves lines that flow into another to represent the numerical data. I found this through a blog and this has given me inspiration that I could make my piece related to information/ data about the body.


Some of the data are represented in circles with lines extruding outwards, this shape has given me slight inspiration in that it looks like a rose with the different petal layers and that data could be represented this way.


I’m finding a lot of patterns that involves tesselation to be interesting because each cell can represent a percentile. This is a shape that has been tesselated and I could relate this to the fish industry, especially due to the recent issues involved with fishing. I could apply foiling finish to highlight interesting facts/ inportant information.

Greeting card


I have worked with laser cutters from being in sixth form but have never successful achieved to engrave card without burning the piece. But this shows how laser cutters can achieve very intricate details with clean lines. I love texture and this gives the card a different dimension and a different experience for the recipient of the card (with the sense of touch).

Book: The information design handbook

Visocky O’Grady, J. (2008) The information design handbook. UK: Rotovision.

Innovation: cave paintings and petroglyphs – P28

  • Cave paintings and Petroglyphs images were used as a means of communication 80,000 years before early writing first appeared in Mesopotamia (circa 3000 BCE)
  • Prehistoric markings can be found in the forms of cave paintings, cliff drawings and petroglyph represent the first known attempt at visual representation of informaiton
  • Lescaux and Chauvet (both caves) in France, world’s oldest cave paintings believed to be over 30,000 years old
  • Empirist theory: motivated by a need to record important events
  • Trance theory: shamans in effort to contact spirits, control lives of animals, change weather and heal the sick (more about David Lewis William’s trance theory, read – The mind in the cave: consciousness and origins of art (Thames & Hudson, 2004))


Innovation: pictographic writing – P29

  • Sumerian pictographic writing systems was imprinted on clay tokens used for commerce
  • Later clay tablets were used to keep records of agricultural and trade goods


Innovation: early cartography – P30

  • Cartography – the art and scenece of creating maps
  • One of the earliest cartographic documents is inscribed into clay in Sumer circa 1300 BCE, is the Town Plan of Nippur:
  • Maps became more complexm in 150 CE Ptolemy wrote the Geographia, a document that contained detailed accounts of the world’s geography in the second century
  • Romans created accurate maps of newly conqurerd lands to manage the construction of roads
  • Renaissance cartographers created highly detailed charts depicting coastlines, ports and geographic hazards and wing direction
  • In modern day we use satellite imagery which is available to any internet use


Innovation: charts and graphs – P31

  • William Playfair was a Scottish engineer and political economist who believed that the visualisation of data was, in some cases easer to understand than the written wor.
  • Playfair wrote to books, The Commerical and Political Atlas in 1786 and The Statistical Breviary in 1801
  • Playfair wanted his audience to be able to visualise the connections between economical factors
  • The father of almost all modern charts and graphs – he bridged significant knowlege gaps and specialised skills were no longer needed to interpret complex data


Innovation: ISOTYPE – P34

  • ISOTYPE was created by Austrian sociologist and political economist Otto Neurath in 1940, with the help of German artist Gerd Arntz
  • Goal was to educate a broad audience by presenting complex data via easily understood symbols
  • “Words make division, pictures make connections”
  • Developed a set of rules to ensure ISOTYPE’s consistent application – governed the use of colour, orientation, the addition of text and more


Innovation: Guides for structuring information – P38

  • Czech modernist Ladislav Sutnar is considered to be one of the great pioneers of information design
  • Sutnar’s work was dominated by strict, functional typogrphic grids, sans serif typefaces, white spaces and whimsical uses of colour and form
  • Would design in spreads rather than single pages (the dominant format of the period)
  • Use of parentheses, brackets, small images and icons to reinforce hierachical structures of content, these visual indexes allowed for rapid scanning of the page and enabled the reader to find information quickly

Innovation: The interactive exhibit – P40

  • Charles and Ray Earnes (most remembered for their contribution to furniture design and film) were well ahead of their time in many creative efforts including information and exhibition design
  • Central to their theme was the notion that math could be fun


Innovation: The pioneer plaque – P44

  • Launched on March 2, 1972 by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States, Pioneer 10 ws the first man- made artifact to travel beyond the boundaries of our solar system and into interstellar space
  • The last contact with Pioneer 10 was made in January 2003 where the craft was 10 billion miles away from Earth
  • Attached to the exterior of the spacecraft is a 6 x 9 inch (15 x 23cm) gold annodised aluminium plate
  • Designed by Frank Drake and Carl Sagan (artwork by Linda Salzman Sagan)

Innovation: The visual language workshop – P46

  • Muriel Cooper (acclaimed as one of the most influential designers of the 20th century) with her work with the Visible Language Worksop
  • at MIT (Massachusetts Institure of Technology) have helped frame our contemporary digital experience
  • Designers, programmers, and computer scientists would come together in a spirit of exploration and experimentation
  • In 1978 became one of the founding members of its Media Lab

Innovation: The first website – P50

  • The internet as we know it today was developed in 1989 by Tim Berners- Lee, a physsicist working at CERN
  • The first address on the web was, a page explaining the technology behind the web, how to build a website and how to undertake an effective search

Typography exploring topograph typeface


Even though it is type, it has been experimented and applied in a different way to form an image or another type. The contours makes it look three dimensional, warped and modern. I think it would look great in a movie or a clip where it zooms in so that the audience can feel the texture of the type and experience the gaps to be like caverns (depth achieved with the contour looks).

Soleil Noir – Looks like good Microsite


There are more posters/ images in this series, I like these posters because they have vibrant colours which are used within the posters e.g. the orange poster has used orange hue colours to keep the theme. Also it shows consistency and that once you have a good idea it can be applied in different ways, all the posters feature the word “BELIEVE IN” in the centre of the poster which is followed by a different phrase. However it can be perceived as boring after a while if the idea is being overstretched and the novelty has worn off. I think the cat image relates to Youtube in that most videos uploaded feature cats.

Jamie and Anthony wedding invitations


I love texture and these invitations have used embossing on the pieces and this gives another design feature which give the impression that this is special. This must have been very expensive though because dies would have been created just for this print. I like the colours used with the light blue contrasting the sharp red in addition the sans serif font (looks like Bebas Neue) used with a serif font (similar to a lighter version of Rockwell) used with a cursive font.

I particularly like the blue print which resembles tree bark texture and if I were to recieve these invites, I would keep and treasure them because they look unique. I like that they used heavy weighted papers.

I have noticed that the common trending colour combinations are orangey red & light blue


I have noticed that many designs for the past few years have used the colour combinations of a orange tint red and cyan. To be honest, I used to be a big fan of this colour combination and saw this in fashion retailers such as Topshop, but now personally I think that it is overused and it just makes me frustrated that it is overused which makes the piece dull. It frustrates me that people always use sans serif font that look like Bebas Neue (where the sans serif font is elongated) with the colour combination and that it makes the design worlds seem to have no originality plus appears the pieces are made by the same person.

HP logo


I liked the previous logo more to be honey because if I didn’t know what the second logo was for I wouldn’t know what it was apart from four parrallel lines. Even though the second logo are the same image reflective to make it more uniform, this only just made me noticed that the first logo are reflected as well but with the extra horizontal stroke on the p compared to the second logo.

As it looks more abstract, I think it appears more cold with the geometric shapes but that could be why the company decided to change so that it looks modern which is the philosophy with electronice companies. But with close inspection the lines do have rounded corners which softens the logo slightly.

Zhenvision home – Journey to the West


I like the typography of the title of the poster “Journey to the West” because it captures the fluidity of the brush stroke used in Chinese calligraphy. Also the texture of the strokes it amazing, I love the scruff brush stroke mark on the last ‘T’, it gives it the sense as the person actually running out of ink to write it which makes it more realistic and alive.

The kamasutra


This is so clever, it’s a risque topic yet the graphics can be seen and interpreted in different ways. It is like an optical illusion and people have to think a specific way to see what the cover conveys. I love how the images are used like a pattern, almost like a pattern on a cow.

I think it would be a great print for other materials making it very versatile.


I’m in the middle of a chain reaction, art Print by Him | Society6


This caught my attention because it relates to bike chains and I am interested in bikes, it’s also a visually appealing piece because of the simple contrast in colours and the simplicty of a jigsaw puzzle. All the pieces fit together and the name “chain reaction” is very fitting. It’s like the pieces are stacked on top of each other and if one is removed the whole thing will topple

Jeremy Kool wolf


I’m not sure if this piece has literally been paper folded or whether the piece is computer generated but this captured my attention due the complexited of the folds adn the textures making it realistic. I like pieces that look like they have time and effort spent on them because this is a great skill to have which shows care for the piece.

Tuesday 3rd January 2011 – Gareth Bayliss – Modular typography

– single square moved up and downcan get letters

– one square moved around to get recognisable shapes e.g. three parallel horizontal lines can be an E

– Bahaus > Josef Albers

– stick and circle (oval) letter can make a B

Neville Brody’s typeface:

Rob Hillier:

– experimenting with ink blobs, fairy washing up liquid, oil paints to get different viscosity

– Ed Ruscha > “ooo” water bubbles, drawing 3D type, designed only one typeface ever: “Chain and cable”, Ed Ruscha is in “The Cool School”


Lecture notes – Tuesday 25th October – Harvey B Brown

This has been the most interesting lecture by far because his work I can actually relate because it is current and well known. I found his lecture to be inspiring in that even though he did not get good grades at university and his tutors didn’t understand his work, he still managed to do well in making fashion pieces and music videos. He had a charming personality which made the lecture more lively and captivating compared to other lectures. He works included the small commercials before the ITV weather which I slightly remember when I was a child and he directed music videos for the Sugababes.

I liked how he worked with different elements e.g. fashion, music, film etc and this shows how we can divert into other art disciplines and this is what I like because personally I like other disciplines too. I like photography, fashion and craft therefore he has shown me that this is a achievable goal.

Facebook status updates


Top 20 Funny Facebook Status Updates

Name… is wondering…. if money doesn’t grow on trees, then why do banks have branches?

Name… is poking my face and wondering what all the fuss is about!

Name… has had amnesia for as long as he can remember.

Name… is wondering where Noah kept the woodpeckers on the ark

Name… is somewhat sceptical you’re laughing out loud as much as you claim.

Name… has CDO. It’s like OCD, except the letters are in alphabetical order…like they should be.

Name… is suffering from amnesia and déjà vu at the same time. I think I’ve forgotten this before.

Name… is retired. I was tired yesterday, and I’m tired again today.

Name… has used all his sick days so is going to phone in dead.

Name… dreams of a better world…where chickens can cross the road without having their motives questioned

Name… used to play sports. Then he realised you can buy trophies. Now he’s good at everything.

Name… says do not argue with an idiot. He will drag you down to his level and beat you with experience.

Name… is wondering if you can grow marijuana on Farmville then sell it on Mafia Wars?

Name… was bringing sexy back, but lost the receipt.

Name… thinks one good thing about Alzheimer’s is that you can hide your own Easter eggs!

Name… is proud of himself. He finished a jigsaw puzzle in 6 months and the box said 2-4 years.

Name… just wants to point out that Cinderella is living proof that shoes CAN change your life!

Name… says practice safe lunch. Use a condiment!

Name… wonders why Noah didn’t kill the mosquitoes while there were only two.

Name… was wondering why the Frisbee kept getting bigger. Then it hit him.


Link –

Types of nonverbal Communication


Nonverbal Communication

 Nonverbal communication is any kind of communication not involving words. When the term is used, most people think of facial expressions and gestures, but while these are important elements of nonverbal communication, they are not the only ones. Nonverbal communication can include vocal sounds that are not words such as grunts, sighs, and whimpers. Even when actual words are being used, there are nonverbal sound elements such as voice tone, pacing of speech and so forth.

Nonverbal communication can be incorporated in a person’s dress. In our society, a person wearing a police uniform is already communicating an important message before they say a word. Another example is a man’s business suit, which is perceived by some as communicating an air of efficiency and professionalism.

While each of these cues conveys a message, so does its absence. In some settings, failing to express a nonverbal cue also communicates meaning. A policeman out of uniform is called “plainclothes” and is seen as deliberately trying to conceal his role. To some, this may make him seem smart or efficient, while others may consider him sneaky or untrustworthy. In the same way, a businessman who does not wear a suit is conveying an air of casualness which some would consider slightly less professional. In the modern world, “dressing down” implies a relaxation of professional standards that is much more than just a change of clothes.

Many cues are based on learned cultural standards, but there are some elements of nonverbal communication that are universal. Paul Eckman’s landmark research on facial expressions in the 1960′s found that the expressions for emotions such as anger, fear, sadness and surprise are the same across all cultural barriers.

The setting where communication takes place also lends a meaning to words apart from their literal definition, and constitutes nonverbal communication. For instance, the word “tradition” means one thing when it is spoken in City Hall, and quite another when it is spoken in a church. The sign of a cross takes on great cultural meaning when used in a religious context, but on a road sign it just means that an intersection is coming up.

Some nonverbal communication accompanies words and modifies their meanings. For instance, our speed of speaking and the pauses we place between our words form a nonverbal element to our speech. A slight pause before a word can imply uncertainty or be interpreted as a request for confirmation from the listener, whereas a lack of pauses can be taken as a sign of confidence or the encouragement of a fast reply from the listener. If someone asks you a question in a hurried manner, you will probably get the feeling that they want a similarly quick reply.

The use of personal space constitutes a form of nonverbal communication. If someone leans toward their listener as they speak, it implies that they are communicating something personal or secret. Depending on the social nuances of the situation, this may be taken as a sign of friendship or an unwanted invasion of space.

The use of touching as an element of communication is called haptic communication, and its meanings are very culture-dependent. In American society, a handshake, a pat on the shoulder or a “high five” have certain definite meanings understood by practically everybody. In other societies, these might be enigmatic acts or an embarrassing invasion of personal space.

The use of the eyes as an element of nonverbal communication is an area of study in itself, and is called “oculesics.” Researchers have divided eye movements into separate elements such as the number and length of eye contacts, blink rate, dilation of the pupils and so forth. Here again, the interpretation of these cues is highly dependent on the culture of the participants. A prolonged stare may establish a bond of trust, or destroy it. It may elicit a reply from the person being stared at, or it may make them become uncommunicative from embarrassment.

This is how most of our communication takes place. When we consider the amount of nonverbal communication that passes between us and compare it with the mere words we say, it is obvious that the nonverbal part is by far the largest.

Nonverbal Communication


What you say is a vital part of any communication. But what you don’t say can be even more important. Research also shows that 55% of in-person communication comes from nonverbal cues like facial expressions, body stance, and tone of voice. According to one study, only 7% of a Receiver’s comprehension of a Message is based on the Sender’s actual words; 38% is based on paralanguage (the tone, pace, and volume of speech), and 55% is based on nonverbal cues (body language).[570]

Research shows that nonverbal cues can also affect whether you get a job offer. Judges examining videotapes of actual applicants were able to assess the social skills of job candidates with the sound turned off. They watched the rate of gesturing, time spent talking, and formality of dress to determine which candidates would be the most successful socially on the job.[571] For this reason, it is important to consider how we appear in business as well as what we say. The muscles of our faces convey our emotions. We can send a silent message without saying a word. A change in facial expression can change our emotional state. Before an interview, for example, if we focus on feeling confident, our face will convey that confidence to an interviewer. Adopting a smile (even if we’re feeling stressed) can reduce the body’s stress levels.

To be effective communicators, we need to align our body language, appearance, and tone with the words we’re trying to convey. Research shows that when individuals are lying, they are more likely to blink more frequently, shift their weight, and shrug.[572]

Another element of nonverbal communication is tone. A different tone can change the perceived meaning of a message. Table 12.2, “Don’t Use That Tone with Me!” demonstrates how clearly this can be true, whether in verbal or written communication. If we simply read these words without the added emphasis, we would be left to wonder, but the emphasis shows us how the tone conveys a great deal of information. Now you can see how changing one’s tone of voice or writing can incite or defuse a misunderstanding.

Table 12.2. Don’t Use That Tone with Me!

Placement of the emphasis What it means
I did not tell John you were late. Someone else told John you were late.
I did not tell John you were late. This did not happen.
I did not tell John you were late. I may have implied it.
I did not tell John you were late. But maybe I told Sharon and José.
I did not tell John you were late. I was talking about someone else.
I did not tell John you were late. I told him you still are late.
I did not tell John you were late. I told him you were attending another meeting.

Changing your tone can dramatically change your meaning.


For an example of the importance of nonverbal communication, imagine that you’re a customer interested in opening a new bank account. At one bank, the bank officer is dressed neatly. She looks you in the eye when she speaks. Her tone is friendly. Her words are easy to understand, yet she sounds professional. “Thank you for considering Bank of the East Coast. We appreciate this opportunity and would love to explore ways that we can work together to help your business grow,” she says with a friendly smile.

At the second bank, the bank officer’s tie is stained. He looks over your head and down at his desk as he speaks. He shifts in his seat and fidgets with his hands. His words say, “Thank you for considering Bank of the West Coast. We appreciate this opportunity and would love to explore ways that we can work together to help your business grow,” but he mumbles, and his voice conveys no enthusiasm or warmth.

Which bank would you choose?

The speaker’s body language must match his or her words. If a Sender’s words and body language don’t match—if a Sender smiles while telling a sad tale, for example—the mismatch between verbal and nonverbal cues can cause a Receiver to actively dislike the Sender.

Here are a few examples of nonverbal cues that can support or detract from a Sender’s Message.

A simple rule of thumb is that simplicity, directness, and warmth convey sincerity. And sincerity is key to effective communication. A firm handshake, given with a warm, dry hand, is a great way to establish trust. A weak, clammy handshake conveys a lack of trustworthiness. Gnawing one’s lip conveys uncertainty. A direct smile conveys confidence.

In business, the style and duration of eye contact considered appropriate vary greatly across cultures. In the United States, looking someone in the eye (for about a second) is considered a sign of trustworthiness.

The human face can produce thousands of different expressions. These expressions have been decoded by experts as corresponding to hundreds of different emotional states.[573] Our faces convey basic information to the outside world. Happiness is associated with an upturned mouth and slightly closed eyes; fear with an open mouth and wide-eyed stare. Flitting (“shifty”) eyes and pursed lips convey a lack of trustworthiness. The effect of facial expressions in conversation is instantaneous. Our brains may register them as “a feeling” about someone’s character.

The position of our body relative to a chair or another person is another powerful silent messenger that conveys interest, aloofness, professionalism—or lack thereof. Head up, back straight (but not rigid) implies an upright character. In interview situations, experts advise mirroring an interviewer’s tendency to lean in and settle back in her seat. The subtle repetition of the other person’s posture conveys that we are listening and responding.

Anthropologist Edward T. Hall coined the term proxemics to denote the different kinds of distance that occur between people. These distances vary between cultures. The figure below outlines the basic proxemics of everyday life and their meaning:[575]

Figure 12.14. Interpersonal Distances

Interpersonal Distances


Standing too far away from a colleague (such as a public speaking distance of more than seven feet) or too close to a colleague (intimate distance for embracing) can thwart an effective verbal communication in business.

Key Takeaway

Types of communication include verbal, written, and nonverbal. Verbal communications have the advantage of immediate feedback, are best for conveying emotions, and can involve storytelling and crucial conversations. Written communications have the advantage of asynchronicity, of reaching many readers, and are best for conveying information. Both verbal and written communications convey nonverbal messages through tone; verbal communications are also colored by body language, eye contact, facial expression, posture, touch, and space.

Improving in working on Macs

At first I found it really difficult to work on Mac computers because my previous school didn’t have Mac computers. I remember the first working day at uni and I couldn’t even locate the log out button. I thought to myself, that situation is like can’t finding the shut down button on Windows. But now after constant use at uni for my work, my knowledge and shortcuts on Macs have developed. In fact, when I’m working on Windows and on my laptop (which is Windows), I keep thinking I’m on a Mac and I used Mac shortcuts to then realise I’m on a Windows. The one fundaments I’ve learnt on Mac is that the “cmd” button on a Mac is the “ctrl” button on a Windows.

Summative evaluation

I have learnt through two of the projects (One word poster and Word & image) that my work is too literal and needs to be more subtle and think out of the box. I have to concentrate more on the form of typography and the concept of typography rather that image concepts because with the word & image my work was confusing because it had aspects of illustration and pure typography. My problem was that I did not know how to use Adobe Illustrator so I found it difficult to illustrate what I was thinking to be the same on screen. I found that my concepts in theory were good however it became lifeless on screen and didn’t convey my idea well. But I have built confidence in using Illustrator as I have had inductions and I have used other programs similar to Illustrator. With my grown confidence, I chose to then use it with my word & image task and found that my ideas looked strong and I managed to project what I was thinking onto the screen.

In addition, I discovered that I find it difficult to capture the desired effects/ images using the DSLR camera, I will need to improve in understanding the settings of a camera so I can build the fundaments on how to achieve the effects I want. I did look in the NUCA library and the city’s library but I still found it difficult to understand the terminology and information.

Surprisingly, the least project I enjoyed being the type off page became my favourite final piece with the shoe with impress carved on the sole of them. I like the photographs produced from the photo shoot with the high quality and clarity. I also enjoyed carving the shoe because personally I enjoy making things (arts and crafts) and it was a nice break from constantly using the computer to work on.

The experience in visiting The Norfolk & Norwich Association for The Blind was fascinating because it also taught me things beyond my research in visual impaired perception. Richard from the institute showed me gadgets that helped the visually impaired, how they do everyday things and I met a person who was blind who was a pleasure to meet. Even though it was part of research for my image task, it also imparted on my personal values and opened my mind too.

Usually in my school life, I’ve tended to have artist’s block where I just stop work because I have no inspiration therefore not motivated to do work. However on this course I have found myself to be motivating myself because I enjoy the course and the course content is interesting to me. This is good because then I am able to meet separate deadlines without having to stress to complete everything last minute. In addition, by being motivated, I am then able to produce dummies on time for critiques and gain feedback.

Cutting out impress on the sole of the shoe

Shut up and make things

Type of the page – I spent last night cutting out the word impress using a lino tool, we chose to do this after coming up with the idea of making a physical impression. I used a scalpel over a lino tool because it is designed to carve.

It tool me a while but I found it satisfying when it was complete. Today, me and Chris went to find a patch of land which had a sandy/ peaty or muddy area. We found a patch of peaty soil in the park opposite the Norwich Playhouse. I thought the photos came out really well and that it was a successful outcome.

Unsuccessful catapult

Shut up and make things

Me and Chris tried to make a catapult using cardboard, however it wasn’t strong enough to withstand the tension from the elastic band. As seen in the photo below the cardboard strips have bent:

I used a lighter to singe the letters I cut out using a scalpel, however fire is unpredictable and it burnt out some of the spacing between arms therefore making the letters illegible:
I think it would have worked with a stronger material such as wood or metal but if we manage to build it, it would be difficult to capture the motion of the letter flying because we are inexperienced with using a DSLR camera.

Evaluation: 5. Word and image

I chose the text “An Exaltation of Larks” by James Lipton and I was going to produce a booklet however after completing rough sketches, I discovered that the work would communicate better in a series of posters illustrating his main text as I consider it to be most important. I chose the page layout to be square because it looks more complete as a series placed beside each other and they also could be tiled as well. I presented my ideas to my tutor but he thought that my ideas to be too literal (as realised in one word poster project), therefore I researched into the game “Dingbats” which I played in my childhood. This game uses layout and images to express the text/ phrase. This inspired me to think more about positioning and connotations of the images. I drew some scanned sketched in my sketchbook and then developed them on Illustrator. I had not worked on Illustrator in depth before therefore the technical induction experience helped me and overtime this developed my skills in the program, especially when using the pen tool, anchor points because initially I could create smooth curves but now I have learnt keyboard shortcuts and the different ways in using the pen tool. I have learnt throughout the projects set that I have to be less literal and that I need to work with form of typefaces.

Evaluation: 4. Unknowing the city

Initially I had no direction of where to take with the project because I had no idea of what the final piece would be. But to inspire me, I explored paths I had never been before; this was a good opportunity to take photos of the “unknown” city, in addition to build my geographic knowledge of Norwich. I took images I personally found visually interesting, though I did walk through busy parts of the city; I tried to experiment with different perspectives (close ups, high/ low angles). After collecting the series of images, I still had no idea for a final piece. However, the image that inspired me was the shot of the The Forum roof that looked like an eye. My direction for the project was going to be images what visually impaired would view of the city – the city can be unknown to them through sight. Everyday is more unknown to them compared to people who have full sight. I expanded my research by contacting Norfolk & Norwich Association of The Blind and arranged to have a consultation. I tried on goggles that simulated different types of visual impairment and found this fascinating. This helped me get the perspective to achieve with the images. I experimented with a pinhole through black card, motion blur, black paint and Vaseline on acetate in front of the lens.

Evaluation: 3. Shut up & make things

I was initially thrown off with the concept of having to work with someone I didn’t know because I was scared we would have clashing ideas or that we would not communicate and resulting in me having to produce all the work. I didn’t know but reflecting back, I think we worked well because we communicated to each other if we had new ideas and the progress of the work. We both sat down and selected the verbs that we chose that we were happy to take further and develop, we both chose one and then decided on the final one together. We both worked at “to fire” idea first but then after constructing it in real life, we discovered it wouldn’t work in real life as the catapult was too flimsy. Chris developed the idea of “to light” by experimenting with different effects. We went back to the idea of “to impress” where Chris researched into sand footprints which then we thought of making a shoe with the word carved on it. I used the lino tool to cut the word and we took photos in context (in the park opposite the Norwich Playhouse). Reflecting back, I would have tried different soils/ effects with the shoe such as making water footprints, but I’m happy with the result of the final outcome but with the photos, the word impress could have been more significant in the image by applying more pressure to the shoe.

Checking my contextual work

Contextual studies

I wasn’t sure if I completed the evaluation correctly or whether it was detailed enough so I asked Martin for his feedback. He said everything is fine but added a few comments on adding “see notes” when referencing artists so then I can print a copy of the artist’s work in additional notes.

Plus I was unsure whether I was referencing videos correctly because I visited the NUCA website then visited another website which was saying a different thing. I am going to ask the librarian at the NUCA library for their opinion.

Alterations made to text & image posters

Word & image

I reworked on the shape of the “S” to make it more curved and make the “eal” more enclosed in the “S’s” so they are more of a unit and more of a pod. I cleaned up the lines as well to make it look more professional.

The lips are constructed with “}” and I reshaped the character to make it appear more pouting yet still retain the identity of the “}”. In addition, I changed the colours of the semi colons to express different types of girls and express more of a personality of the punctuation marks.

I removed the branch and replaced it with a “Y” to feature type, I cleaned up the lines by using paths and a single stroke and I removed the claw shapes.

I removed the leaves so the poster is pure typography.

6. Bibliography

Ambrose, Gavin. (2005) Basic design Colour. Lausanne: AVA Publishing.

Anonymous. (2009). The London 2012 Logo: Winner or Loser?. Available: Last accessed 19 Oct 2011.

Anonymous. (2011). Trendy London 2012 logo branded a flop. Available: Last accessed 15 Nov 2011.

Batchelor, D. (1997) Minimalism. London: Tate Gallery.

Bryon, Lee. (2008). Passing the Torch: An Evolution of Form. Available: Last accessed 07 Nov 2011.

Buchholz, A. (2000) What makes winning brands different : the hidden method behind the world’s most successful brands. New York: Wiley.

Cass, Jacob. (2009). What makes a good logo?. Available: Last accessed 31 Oct 2011.

DiFrisco, Michael. (2009). Logo Design Theory: Branding with Your Logo. Available: Last accessed 31 Oct 2011.

Evad. (2008). Design and Branding Trends: Olympic Games. Available: Last accessed 02 Nov 2011.

Farquhar, Gordon. (2010) London 2012 unveils Games mascots Wenlock & Mandeville. [Online]. Monday 7th March 2011.Available from <; Accessed 15 Nov 2011.

Gallagher, Mark. (2009). What is branding. Available: -. Last accessed 31 Oct 2011.

Klanten, R. and Hellige, H. (2009) Naive : modernism and folklore in contemporary graphic design. Berlin: Gestalten.

Kommunikation. (2011). Design Manuals. Available: Last accessed 07 Nov 2011.

Mirko. (2008). Design at the Beijing Olympic games. Available: Last accessed 02 Nov 2011.

Pawson, J. (1996) Minimum. London: Phaidon.

Riesreport, (2008) Shape of a Logo. [YouTube video] Available at <!&gt; Accessed 31 Oct 2011.

Sinclair, Mark. (2007). London 2012. Well, at least it doesn’t have Big Ben on it. Available: Last accessed 19 Oct 2011.

Yew, W. (1996) Olympic image : the first 100 years. Alberta: Quon Editions.

Lecture notes – Tuesday 15th November 2011 – Simon Loxley

William Morris

– “books are priced high yet he is a socialist”

– pre rafalites

– female models of red wavy flowly hair

– during William Morris there was medieval interest

– Edward Johnson

– Thomas Cobden – Sanderson > when Morris dies, thought set up private press > “The Dove” pub

– “tonality” > greyness

– Thomas Cobden – Sanderson with Emery Walker > both create “Dove” font

– Sanderson and Walker broke up> Sanderson threw matrixes into river on Hammersmith bridge > think that font is religous

– tried to recreate later but eyesight was poor from old age

Stitching my booklet

Type on the page

I precisely sewed the spine of the booklet with black thread and 5mm spacing. I think it looks good and professional personally.

I sewed the running stitch tightly so it isn’t that noticeable which is good plus is binds the entire booklet securely:

Type off the page

Even though the text is actually on the page but the three dimension makes it off the page. I like the intricate design and how delicate the piece it. The white text held against the black background it strong:

I like the overflowing of the letters and how carefully they are arranged on the wire, this must have taken a long time to compile:




V. Ryan © 2004

Embossing involves raising areas of a card surface above the level of the rest. The diagram below shows a coat of arms that has been embossed on green card. The images stands out from the card as it has been produced by a stamp which presses the card to the correct shape. This process adds cost to the printing process but gives the card a 3D effect.

Alongside the embossed version is the same coat of arms printed in colour, on paper – note the difference. Embossing usually doubles the cost of normal printing as it takes place after processes such as colour, printing and varnishing have been completed.
Normally a small area of a package may be embossed, so that it stands out. Manufacturers use embossing to make their product look more luxurious and expensive.


A good example of simple embossing can be seen below. A letter with a coat of arms is to be sent to a number of important people. To make the letter look and feel more important the coat of arms is to be embossed. This means that the coat of arms must stand out from the surface of the card / special paper.

A special embossing tool has been made with the shape of the coat of arms engraved on its base. The embossing tool is aligned with the printed coat of arms and the mallet is then used to strongly tap the embossing tool. The material underneath the letter is rubber so that the ‘blow’ from the mallet / embossing tool is absorbed and yet allows the embossed area of the paper to stand out from the rest of the papers surface.

During the use of the embossing tool, the paper is reversed so that the blow is to the back of the crest of arms.

If many copies of the same embossed paper was needed, automatic printing machines can be used. These will print the coat of arms and any text and then emboss the specified area. Thousands of copies can be produced accurately.

Lino cutting


What is Lino Printing?

Lino Printing or Lino Cutting as it is also known is a block printing technique.  Lino printing is quite a simple process and as a result is it widely used in schools.  It is a great way to introduce children to the art of printmaking.  Lino Printing is a popular print making technique using by many professional artists.  Lino printing was originally held in low esteem by the art world until Pablo Picasso made a series of lino prints in the 1950s.  Some samples of his work can be found in this book. (46% off the price and free delivery worldwide)

What does Lino Printing involve?

Firstly a design is choose to be printed.  A mirror image of this design is transfered to the lino block.  Typically this is done using tracing paper or sometimes the sketch is made directly to the lino block.  It depends on how confident you are in your mirror image sketching abilities.
Areas of the design are then carved from the lino block.  The uncarved areas of the block are the parts that get printed.  At this point the lino block is inked with use of a roller and printed onto paper for fabric.  Typically this printing process is carried out manually but it can also be done using a printing press.  For most people the manually process is just fine but if you are looking for professional quality prints then a printing press is the next step.
Prints can be made using one or more colours.  If you use just one colour then the print is complete at this stage.  If  you use multiple colours then once the first print is finished the lino block is cleaned and dried.  Another section of the lino block is then carved.  The section that has been carved will not be printed for the subsequent colour.  The process continues until all of the colours have been printed.
———– ———- ———–

Lino-Cutting Tips

An Artist is Only as Good as His Tools

If you’ve got a set of those plasticky things they torture GCSE art students with chuck them away. Cheap tools are potentially dangerous; badly designed handles reduce control and blunt blades skid through lino unpredictably. They also make for disappointing results and disaffected students.

Good tools last a lifetime or more, will improve with judicious sharpening, and retain value on the second hand market (so you could eBay them if crisis strikes!).

Don’t be Conned Into Buying the Whole Range

Three or four is enough for most people, at least to start with. If you’re using a press, the size of your lino-cuts will be restricted to suit the machine so choose tools to scale. There’s no point having a tool the size of a spade if you’ve got an Adana 5 x 3.


Soften with Linseed Oil

Put a drop of linseed oil on a rag and rub it over the surface of your lino. It’s traditionally thought to keep the lino supple. Do this before you warm the lino, and it’ll sink in nicely.


Heat Your Lino Gently to Make it Easier to Work With

Don’t get it too hot or it will warp badly; try holding it over a light-bulb (not a fluorescent one!), put it near a radiator, in bright sunshine (if you live in a country so blessed) or try a hair drier on a low/medium heat setting.

Your tools will glide through the lino, it won’t tear with jagged edges and you can create finer detail. You’ll notice as soon as the effects wear off, and you’ll wonder why no one told you about warm lino before!


Rub a Little White Watercolour Paint Over the Surface

This creates a greater contrast between the printing surface and the cut-away areas, so it’s easier to see what you’re doing. Wipe it off with a damp cloth when you’ve finished.


Cut Deeper for Letterpress

If you’re used to printing with a hand-roller, the back of a spoon or a proofing press, you’ll almost certainly need to cut your lino deeper to get a good print with a proper press, because of the increased pressure. Otherwise the white space will start to take ink and your fine detail will fill up, especially on longer runs. For the same reason, don’t buy thin lino!

ow deep should you cut? In solid areas of your design, as in Fig B, you can cut quite shallow details (as little as 3pt deep, for the finest detail) because there’s plenty of lino around it to bear the pressure. If you’ve got a large area of white space with a few spots of detail, as in Fig A, you need to cut at least twice as deep to prevent the cut-away area from printing.Large areas of white space should be cut as deep as possible without going through to the backing, especially around the edges of the lino (the edges which the rollers hit first and last need extra attention).

If you want to save the detail in an existing lino-cut, and cutting deeper isn’t an option, you can take a print (it must be in black ink on bright white paper) with your trusty spoon, and get it made into a nylon block (or metal if the detail is exceptionally fine) for reproduction on a grander scale.

Mount with 2″ Double Sided Tape

Double sided tape can be removed with minimal damage and, with a bit of luck, you’ll be able to reuse both mount and lino-cut.

  • Stick the tape onto the back of the lino, butting up the edges evenly to prevent bumpy overlaps (use the widest tape you can get) and trim round.
  • Turn the lino the right way up and press down firmly to get rid of any air bubbles in the tape underneath.
  • Peel off the backing and press firmly onto your mount.
  • Obstinate bubbles can be prodded with a pin!

You’ll find more detail in the Getting Started… Block Mounting guide.

When All Else Fails, Make a Block

It happens to everyone; you’ve almost finished and then, with one slip of your hand, someone’s lost an ear. Or a leg. Whilst some accidents can be incorporated into the design, some seem heart-breakingly final.

Unless the damaged area is separated from the rest of your design by lots of white space, don’t listen to anyone who tells you to cut around the mistake and insert a new piece of lino into the hole. This can be done, but doing it well is a lot harder than it sounds. You’re very likely to ruin the whole thing. So why not take a print (black ink/white paper), fill in the gap in the proof with indian ink and have a nylon block made? It’s not quite the same as the ‘real’ thing, but needs must!

5. Evaluation

I have chosen the topic of Olympics because of how controversial it is from the branding to the ticketing system, in addition it is current news and that it is relevant to myself as I live on the outskirts of London. I particularly found the design for the Olympics to be interesting from the logo to the mascots to the recently released posters. The research method I used was to use the library to gather information about design styles and design principles (such colours, layouts and branding). I read books about the history of the Olympics and the different sport events within it. Then I used the internet to search for relevant articles related to the Olympics and to get a wider perspective of views on the latest event. Also the internet connects users from across the world therefore there would be a larger range of content and that I could view past Olympic designs – some websites gave me the option of interactivity and made researching more enjoyable.

I found that the series of Ambrose and Harris’ books to be useful because it gave information of design principles and theories. The book “Olympic Image” was relatively interesting too because it featured colour photos of each countries Olympic style which help me understand the different countries design style and how it compares to London 2012.

With research, it has impacted on my thinking of the London 2012 logo where that now I don’t have a strong dislike for the logo because I now understand that the design has a reason for the simplistic style and appreciate it through research about minimalism (as my personal taste opposite to minimalism). In addition, the logo is good in the sense that it is flexible where the fill can have anything inside e.g. a pattern or a texture. I think the methods I have used to be successful but initially I found that finding information about the design aspect of the Olympics to be difficult as I had used the library first and they did not have any content on the Olympics specifically. But the method using the internet was successful because I found a lot of relevant and useful content about the design aspect of the Olympics. Some material I had found was not really relevant to my topic such as with some of the branding books I read was too niche towards business branding businesses rather than an international events and the history of Olympics weren’t particularly helpful because I wanted to know mainly about the current 2012 Olympics rather than how it was originated.

4. Referencing

“The IOC encourages the cities that host the Games to conceive a unique artistic design which reflects both the local spirit and culture and the Olympic ideals” Yew, W. (1996) Olympic image: the first 100 years. Alberta: Quon Editions.

“The dramatic new logo has been written in trendy jagged street writing, favoured by electro bands, and comes in bright shades of pink, blue, green and orange. Branding experts say the style which is very fashionable at the moment as an 1980s pastiche will be completely dated when the games actually take place in five years time.” Anonymous. (2011). Trendy London 2012 logo branded a flop. Available: Last accessed 15 Nov 2011.

“Our original brief asked us to create a mascot, which will engage and kind of get young people across the UK into sports. The mascots have been designed for the digital age, the eyes are actually a camera so it allows them to record and examine things on their journey. The also have the British icon, the taxi headlights. The Wenlock head shape is based on the Olympic stadium; the lighting towers and also represents the three Olympic podiums. Mandeville is based on the Paralympic symbol…I think mascots are important to the games because they connect people to the games, very tangible product.”  Farquhar, Gordon. (2010) London 2012 unveils Games mascots Wenlock & Mandeville. [Online]. Monday 7th March 2011.Available from <; Accessed 15 Nov 2011.

3. Annotated image – London 2012 logo

The geometric form and solid colour fills caused controversy that it resembled children’s work due to the simplistic appearance. The abstract style resembles paper cut-outs (similar style to Henri Matisse, Blue Nude II) and can be criticised that it is illegible. The corners of the individual figures are angular; the designer appears to want to portray the London Olympics to be edgy and futuristic.

Pink is a “warm, exciting, fun” colour and “as the amount of red increases, it becomes more vivid and youthful”.  A strong hue of red in the pink and the hue of the yellow is bright, connoting that it will be fresh, fun and exciting.

The colours used don’t resemble any significance to traditional British colours, which seems odd as an Olympic logo usually symbolises the country (e.g. Beijing Olympics had Chinese writing brush strokes and the flag colour of red).

The word ‘London” and the Olympic rings are embedded in the main body of the logo, the Olympic rings are used to signify the counter in the ‘0’. Personally I think that without the Olympic Rings and the ‘London’ embedded, it would be difficult to recognise what the logo was for.

The logo was accused to resemble racist images, where the logo looked like the swastika with the hard edges. In addition, the logo resembled sexual acts and resembled the word of ‘Zion’. The word ‘2012’ has been broken up into two parts, this could be because of how people say the pronounce it as “twenty twelve”. But it is said that most effective logos are in the proportion of 2.25:1:25, so the layout of two lines would be successful.

Motivating checklist

I have found that making a checklist the night before is really motivating the next day because I then know what I am going to do and it is motivating when it is ticked off. I try to make my checklist realistic so then it would be achievable and motivating rather than depressing and being stressed. This was the list I made yesterday night and have ticked off today:

Choosing a layout for the image poster

Unknowing the city

I’m undecided on which layout to have for my image poster, I experimented with the different combinations of the series of photos. But I like the one where the four smaller eye images have distributed spacing vertically and the top small eye has a slighter greater space – all the photos are positioned higher up on the page leaving a greater amount of white space at the bottom.

I chose to position the photos higher up because I read “The Layout Book” by Ambrose/ Harris and they said that people don’t look right in the centre/ middle of the page but high middle.

2. Annotated text – Branding

Branding is a form of a promise in where they market their products to meet consumer’s expectations. Branding can be a form of a name, symbol, sign or device which can help consumers differentiate the person’s/ business’s product from competitors. It was said that it was first used on branding animals in England to show ownership, whilst later, Wedgewood used branding was used to connote quality.

By establishing a brand, it can create can create intangible value where the brand can portray a certain aura or reputation (e.g. quality) making the launch of new products to consumers easier as they are a trusted brand. It is used to differentiate from competitors and this could be in the form of visual applications such as packaging, form, colours, fonts and these would be based on the brand’s style.

Brands can associate with our senses either it be the product itself or the environment the brand is located, e.g. supermarket and with these senses, it is a system for differentiation. In addition, the concept branding can be attached to the concept of marketing where the most successful brands usually have a unique selling point where it is then advertised to customers.

3. Annotated image (old)

The simplistic form with geometric shapes and solid colour fills caused controversy that the logo resembled a child’s word because it appeared too simplistic. The abstract style resembles paper collage cutouts (similar style technique to Henri Matisse, Blue Nude II) and can be criticized that it is illegible. The corners of the individual figures are sharp and angular, the designer appears to want to portray the London Olympics to be edgy and futuristic, the designer even did not use curves on the ‘0’ figure.

The shade used for the sequence of logos are relatively bright which can connote that the upcoming Olympics are fresh. Pink is a “warm, exciting, fun” colour and “as the amount of red increases, it becomes more vivid and youthful”. There is a strong hue of red in the pink and the hue of the yellow is bright, therefore the logo gives the impression of fun and exciting.

The colours used does not resemble any significance to traditional British colours (red, white and blue) which seemed odd as an Olympic logo usually symbolises the country (e.g. Bejing olympics in the style of Chinese writing brush strokes and the flag colour of red).

The word ‘London” and the Olympic rings are embedded in the main body of the logo, the Olympic rings are used to signify the counter in the ‘0’. The typeface used on the word ‘London’ is used throughout their promotional material, the style is italic which is difficult to read and the font is geometric (circles for ‘o’ and triangle ‘n’).

There were cases that the logo was accused to resemble racist images, where the logo looked like the swastika with the hard edges. Other accusation was that the logo resembled sexual acts and resembled the word of ‘Zion’. The word ‘2012’ has been broken up into two parts of ‘20’ and ‘12’, this could be because of how people say the pronounce the word as “twenty twelve”, therefore it is broken up. But it is said that most effective logos are in the proportion of 2.25:1:25, therefore by setting it in two lines then it would be more successful.

Are you a design nerd?


I think I need to own these sets of graphic design triva questions just for personal interest and to test my knowledge.

DESIGNerd is a new trivia game venture, devised by Brisbane-based graphic designer Kevin Finn of Finn Creative. The first three limited edition packs of ‘100+ Graphic Design Questions by’ have recently launched with each pack’s questions devised by a different designer…

Kevin Finn set the questions (each printed on its own card with bonus points available for extra knowledge) for Volume 1, Steven Heller and Lita Talarico devised the questions for Volume 2, and Stefan Sagmeister has concocted the quiz questions for Volume 3, soon to be released.

We’ve dipped in to the Heller + Talarico pack to test our knowledge. Here are a couple of questions to give you a flavour of the geekery required to be a contender in a game of DESIGNerd:

Who designed the title sequence for the movie ‘Seven’ which introduced scratchy, layered, post-modern typography to film title design?

In 1989, Zuzana Licko designed two digital typefaces. One of them is called Lunatix. What is the other typeface called?

When did German type designer Hermann Zapf design the typefaces Melior and Optima for the Stempel Foundry?

You get the idea. Try answering without using the internet!

Each pack is limited to just 1000 issues and comes housed in a rather nice round-edged tin which is personalised by the contributing designer’s own hand drawn rendering of ‘100+’ on the front and then their hand drawn question mark on the back. Good job the packaging is sturdy, re-usable and beautifully made: each pack is priced at AUS$75 which works out at a rather pricey £48 (US$77) by today’s exchange rates. On the plus side, if you live with or spend a lot of time with design nerds, this game will test and increase your knowledge like no other trivia game.

Finn is also developing series of similar ‘100+’ packs that compile trivia questions by luminaries in teh fields of Architecture, Product Design, and also Fashion Design.

John Lewis tugs those xmas heartstrings again


They’ve done it again: Adam & Eve’s new Christmas ad for John Lewis tugs at a nation’s heartstrings as a little boy awaits the special day

The ad is entitled The Long Wait and was directed by Dougal Wilson. If the reaction on Twitter is anything to go by, it’s another winner, although Charlie Brooker is attempting to spread the idea that, at the end, that box contains a nasty surprise…

Here’s the making-of film

Georgia and Verdana typefaces redrawn


Matthew Carter, who designed the Georgia and Verdana typefaces in the 1990s, has updated them to be better suited to mobile and tablet devices.


The Georgia Pro and Verdana Pro typefaces, which are being released by Monotype Imaging, have been updated to feature 20 weights and new character sets.

New weights include a light, semibold and black, each with matching italics, in addition to new condensed families.

Carter has worked with Monotype Imaging’s Tom Rickner, who worked on the orginal typefaces, while Font Bureau’s David Berlow has worked on Verdana Pro and Monotype Imaging’s Steve Matteson on Georgia Pro.


The original typefaces were developed for Microsoft’s Core Fonts for the Web pack. Allan Haley, director of words and letters at Monotype Imaging, says, ‘Georgia and Verdana represented major milestones in the 1990s because they worked so well on-screen and were among the first Web-safe fonts.’

He adds, ‘However, with four fonts each, they were limited in their use. The new Pro versions empower these highly legible, tried-and-true designs with newfound typographic versatility.’

Matteson says, ‘The enhancements to the families are significant – especially in this new age of Web fonts. With the explosion of devices that provide for on-screen reading experiences, these fonts are more relevant than ever.’

Lecture notes – Wednesday 12th October 2011 – Nic Maffei

– NUCA library online resource

> Keynote

> library computer system

> Athens


–  Social media as research tool

> Twitter

> (searching articles)

> LinkedIn > D&AD

> Flickr (library of congress, American newspapers from history)

– Blog aggregators (feeds all blogs to one site)

> Google reader

> Behance network

– Visual databases

> VADS (, especially looking at Tom Eckersley)

– Museum collections

> Museum of modern art, – V&A

– Newspapers online

> Google news

> British library

> Library of congress

– Design blogs

> designobserver

> eyemagazine

> underconsideration

> individual > “the death of print”

> container list (Milton Glaser)

– Digitalised magazines


– professional associates

> AIGA (American Institute of Graphic Artists)

Experimenting with different photography effects

Unknowing the city

I bought some acetate and looked at the different visual effects that the visually impaired see. These are the different materials and effects I used/ created:

– black painted spodges on acetate in front of lens > for macular degeneration (where black dots are in view and no pattern is the same like how fingerprints are unique)

– black pin pricked card in front of lens > glaucoma (where you can only see small circle view with a black outside)

– vaseline smeared on acetate in front of lens > cataracts (cloudy)

– thickly smeared vaseline on acetate in front of lens > light/ dark perception (light/ dark)

– slow shutter speed/ aperture > short sighted (blur in background)

Evaluation: 2. Typography booklet

I enjoy making publications; I browsed through existing layouts and styles through the library and the internet. Then I tried a basic layout of using grids, using a consistent layout throughout the pages, using the colour theme of black and cyan. However I found this to be visually plain so then I tried to add the colour of orange to contrast against the cyan so it became vibrant. But still I found the booklet to be boring and after investigation, I realised it was because of the layout as it was being pedestrian being title to the left, main body text to the right. In addition I though the booklet was cluttered and needed to be simplified. Therefore I completely changed the layout of the booklet with large-scale typeface text on the left page and the main information on the right page because I had found that most people’s attention is on the right side when they flick through pages. By having each typeface styles on a double page spread, this had increased the amount of pages. I completed the contents of the booklet but had trouble in deciding the design of the covers. I experimented with different layouts but after experimentation, I thought it would work best with the colour theme of the booklet.

Evaluation: 1. One word poster

I had loads of ideas initially but after feedback, I realised that my work was too literal and that the one word poster had to be subtler so that the audience would stop and think about the meaning. I found that using computers to produce intricate designs was time consuming especially when I wanted to produce my own type; therefore I decided to sketch the designs and render them myself. Personally I thought two of my ideas were clichéd, communicate being in using the telephone cord to produce the letter and vanity in the use of the mirror. I tried to change the vanity poster to become unique by producing my own vanity themed form letters. The feedback I received about the vanity poster was that it would work well if my presentation skills were good.  I used watercolour paints and pencils for the poster but I found that the poster was not strong enough because the separate letters stood individually and didn’t communicate the word well.

I had an idea of trace where I drew the word trace in the air and the camera would capture the motion in a blur. I asked a photography student friend to assist me to capture this effect however the concept I had did not work in real life. I borrowed a DSLR camera then searched thoroughly on the internet and photography books to try and teach myself how to create the effect but I could not find the answer.

The piece that was one of the ones that I was least keen became the direction for my final outcome. At first I was thinking of many zoom words builds a big zoom word but then this concept was pushed further with the concept of pixilation and how that images can appear pixelated when zoomed in but are legible when zoomed out. I then experimented with the amount of pixels required for the image to be no longer legible; it appeared that 10 pixels per inch on A2 worked the best in the end.

Feedback for word and image

Word & image

Feedback for word and image: Type needs to build the image not the other way round. Not too keen on the bear poster because it’s too literal with the claw and you could swap the tree with a letter “Y”. It’s looking too illustrative at the moment and it’s getting confusing because some of the posters are pure type which it should be.

Lecture notes – Thursday 10th November 2011 – Gareth Bayliss


– Francessca Woodman (died at 22)

– Arthur Fellig (morbid process of radio scanning police cars to get pictures of the crime scene before the police)

– Margaret Calvert > roadsigns

– Ott Aicher > how much you can take away


– James Joyce

Putting image together:

– Robert Rauschenberg (collage style, liquid light)

– “putting them together to get narrative”

Recyled old goods:

– Jean Tingwely

– Daniel Eatock > felt tip pens (slodges of ink)

Deciding on the theme Olympics

Contextual studies

After deciding on the theme Olympics from looking at my image analysis, I thought I might keep the research for the logo and delve in deeper into the theme of Olympics. I borrowed some books based on subject around Olympics such as branding and logos. I tried to find some books specifically about Olmypic design but only found one and gave a history on the past Olympic events in different countries.

Illustrator live trace

Word & image

The technical induction I had with Ella has come in useful because if I didn not know of this feature, I would have spent hours in using the pen tool anchors to trace round the sketches I have. But today I scanned in my sketches, live traced, live painted and just made some minor edits.

What colour deficient people see


I researched into colour blindness and came across different types of colour blindness. I am going to adjust the images in Photoshop to achieve this effect by reducing the saturation and adjusting the hue. I was thinking to take a photo of something vibrant to demonstrate the impact of this condition.

What’s it like to be visually impaired?

I researched into different forms of visual impairment and this appears to be glaucoma, where the person can only see the central part of the image and the outside is black. The vision range is restrictive and viewing the video makes me think it must be really difficult with everyday life because the person has to scan using their eyes everywhere because they cannot view the whole picture.

Visual impairment – different types


  • Amblyopia (pronounced: am-blee-oh-pee-uh) is reduced vision in an eye caused by lack of use of that eye in early childhood. Some conditions cause a child’s eyes to send different messages to the brain (for example, one eye might focus better than the other). The brain may then turn off or suppress images from the weaker eye and vision from that eye then stops developing normally. This is also known as a “lazy eye.” Strabismus (misaligned or crossed eyes) is a common cause of amblyopia, since the brain will start to ignore messages sent by one of the misaligned eyes.
  • Cataracts are cloudy areas in part or all of the lens of the eye. In people without cataracts, the lens is crystal clear and allows light to pass through and focus on the retina. Cataracts prevent light from easily passing through the lens, and this causes loss of vision. Cataracts often form slowly and usually affect people in their 60s and 70s, but sometimes babies are born with congenital cataracts. Symptoms include double vision, cloudy or blurry vision, difficulty seeing in poorly lit spaces, and colors that seem faded.
  • Diabetic retinopathy (pronounced: reh-ton-ah-pa-thee) occurs when the tiny blood vessels in the retina are damaged due to diabetes. People with retinopathy may not have any problems seeing at first. But if the condition gets worse, they can become blind. Teens who have diabetes should be sure to get regular eye exams because there are no early warning signs for this condition. To help prevent retinopathy, people with diabetes should also avoid smoking, keep their blood pressure under control, and keep their blood sugar at an even level.
  • Glaucoma is an increase in pressure inside the eye. The increased pressure impairs vision by damaging the optic nerve. Glaucoma is mostly seen in older adults, although babies may be born with the condition and children and teens can sometimes develop it as well.
  • Macular degeneration (pronounced: mah-kyoo-lur dih-jeh-nuh-ray-shun) is a gradual and progressive deterioration of the macula, the most sensitive region of the retina. The condition leads to progressive loss of central vision (the ability to see fine details directly in front). Macular degeneration is often age related (it occurs in older people, especially older than 60), but sometimes it can occur in younger people. Excessive exposure to sunlight and smoking can increase the risk for age-related macular degeneration. Symptoms may include increased difficulty reading or watching TV, or distorted vision in which straight lines appear wavy or objects look larger or smaller than normal.
  • Trachoma (pronounced: truh-ko-muh) occurs when a very contagious microorganism called Chlamydia trachomatis causes inflammation in the eye. It’s often found in poor rural countries that have overcrowded living conditions and limited access to water and sanitation. Blindness due to trachoma has been virtually eliminated from the USA.

Feedback for booklet (3)

Type on the page

I checked the new cover design with Rob – he said to just reduce the size of “Typography” so that it wasn’t so tight on the edges – and chose to have it printed on eco card because I like the texture of the card so it’ll make the booklet look special and luxurious. I’m going to bind the booklet later using a needle and black thread for a running stitch so it’ll match the theme of the booklet and make it less noticable.

Reasons of why I didn’t choose other styles of binding:

Hardcover – A hard cover would not be suitable because there are only a few pages therefore there would not be a significant spine.

Comb – A comb binding would not be suitable because it allows there to be a gap where the pages are separate. Plus this would ruin the effect of the fluidity on the double page spreads especially when the sample text is across the right page as well. This is the same reason of why I wouldn’t use coil binding. In addition, where the holes/ slots are punched for the comb, detail of the booklet will be lost.

Side stitch – A side stitch would not be appropriate because detail down the gutter would be lost and there would be a deep crease/ fold on the left edge of the booklet.

Saddle stitch – This is the most appropriate beinging out of the above as it allows the reader to view the double page spread fully. However saddle stitches sometimes can allow the reader to view the pages behind.

Running stitch – I have chosen to hand stitch the booklet which gives a personal touch and also secures the booklet more in comparison to the saddle stitch. In addition it removes the potential issue that the behind pages are in view.

Books to inspire me

Word & image

As I didn’t really understand the brief that well, I went to the library and borrowed some books to get inspiration for instances when designers have used type as images. I came across “What is typography?” by David Jury and it had Atelier works. They have used characters to form people by manipulating with layout and form of the typography. This is a pure example of type as image:

In addition, I found another book, “Naive” by Gestalten, and it featured a designer, Aarron Johnson, combining to image concepts and putting them to one using illustrations. They had phrases which were similar to the brief:

It’s combining two ideas in a series of one such as with “Make you point”, the designer used an image of a sharpener and a target to express the “point” word.

How we read shown through eyetracking


  • How we read shown through eyetracking
  • How you read left aligned text…
  • How you read left aligned text…
  • Left aligned text lets you read fluently…
  • How you read centre aligned text…
  • You have to skip to different line starting positions – this makes it slower to read.
  • How you read right aligned text…
  • Again you have to skip to different line starting positions making it slower to read.
  • How you read justified text…
  • Justified text leads to uneven gaps between words which disrupts fluent reading
  • An all caps sentence destroys the word shape making word recognition slower and rereading a word more frequent
  • Use left aligned text for reading