Lecture notes – Tuesday 25th October – Harvey B Brown

This has been the most interesting lecture by far because his work I can actually relate because it is current and well known. I found his lecture to be inspiring in that even though he did not get good grades at university and his tutors didn’t understand his work, he still managed to do well in making fashion pieces and music videos. He had a charming personality which made the lecture more lively and captivating compared to other lectures. He works included the small commercials before the ITV weather which I slightly remember when I was a child and he directed music videos for the Sugababes.

I liked how he worked with different elements e.g. fashion, music, film etc and this shows how we can divert into other art disciplines and this is what I like because personally I like other disciplines too. I like photography, fashion and craft therefore he has shown me that this is a achievable goal.

Facebook status updates


Top 20 Funny Facebook Status Updates

Name… is wondering…. if money doesn’t grow on trees, then why do banks have branches?

Name… is poking my face and wondering what all the fuss is about!

Name… has had amnesia for as long as he can remember.

Name… is wondering where Noah kept the woodpeckers on the ark

Name… is somewhat sceptical you’re laughing out loud as much as you claim.

Name… has CDO. It’s like OCD, except the letters are in alphabetical order…like they should be.

Name… is suffering from amnesia and déjà vu at the same time. I think I’ve forgotten this before.

Name… is retired. I was tired yesterday, and I’m tired again today.

Name… has used all his sick days so is going to phone in dead.

Name… dreams of a better world…where chickens can cross the road without having their motives questioned

Name… used to play sports. Then he realised you can buy trophies. Now he’s good at everything.

Name… says do not argue with an idiot. He will drag you down to his level and beat you with experience.

Name… is wondering if you can grow marijuana on Farmville then sell it on Mafia Wars?

Name… was bringing sexy back, but lost the receipt.

Name… thinks one good thing about Alzheimer’s is that you can hide your own Easter eggs!

Name… is proud of himself. He finished a jigsaw puzzle in 6 months and the box said 2-4 years.

Name… just wants to point out that Cinderella is living proof that shoes CAN change your life!

Name… says practice safe lunch. Use a condiment!

Name… wonders why Noah didn’t kill the mosquitoes while there were only two.

Name… was wondering why the Frisbee kept getting bigger. Then it hit him.


Link – http://www.onelinerz.net/top-100-funny-one-liners/

Types of nonverbal Communication


Nonverbal Communication

 Nonverbal communication is any kind of communication not involving words. When the term is used, most people think of facial expressions and gestures, but while these are important elements of nonverbal communication, they are not the only ones. Nonverbal communication can include vocal sounds that are not words such as grunts, sighs, and whimpers. Even when actual words are being used, there are nonverbal sound elements such as voice tone, pacing of speech and so forth.

Nonverbal communication can be incorporated in a person’s dress. In our society, a person wearing a police uniform is already communicating an important message before they say a word. Another example is a man’s business suit, which is perceived by some as communicating an air of efficiency and professionalism.

While each of these cues conveys a message, so does its absence. In some settings, failing to express a nonverbal cue also communicates meaning. A policeman out of uniform is called “plainclothes” and is seen as deliberately trying to conceal his role. To some, this may make him seem smart or efficient, while others may consider him sneaky or untrustworthy. In the same way, a businessman who does not wear a suit is conveying an air of casualness which some would consider slightly less professional. In the modern world, “dressing down” implies a relaxation of professional standards that is much more than just a change of clothes.

Many cues are based on learned cultural standards, but there are some elements of nonverbal communication that are universal. Paul Eckman’s landmark research on facial expressions in the 1960′s found that the expressions for emotions such as anger, fear, sadness and surprise are the same across all cultural barriers.

The setting where communication takes place also lends a meaning to words apart from their literal definition, and constitutes nonverbal communication. For instance, the word “tradition” means one thing when it is spoken in City Hall, and quite another when it is spoken in a church. The sign of a cross takes on great cultural meaning when used in a religious context, but on a road sign it just means that an intersection is coming up.

Some nonverbal communication accompanies words and modifies their meanings. For instance, our speed of speaking and the pauses we place between our words form a nonverbal element to our speech. A slight pause before a word can imply uncertainty or be interpreted as a request for confirmation from the listener, whereas a lack of pauses can be taken as a sign of confidence or the encouragement of a fast reply from the listener. If someone asks you a question in a hurried manner, you will probably get the feeling that they want a similarly quick reply.

The use of personal space constitutes a form of nonverbal communication. If someone leans toward their listener as they speak, it implies that they are communicating something personal or secret. Depending on the social nuances of the situation, this may be taken as a sign of friendship or an unwanted invasion of space.

The use of touching as an element of communication is called haptic communication, and its meanings are very culture-dependent. In American society, a handshake, a pat on the shoulder or a “high five” have certain definite meanings understood by practically everybody. In other societies, these might be enigmatic acts or an embarrassing invasion of personal space.

The use of the eyes as an element of nonverbal communication is an area of study in itself, and is called “oculesics.” Researchers have divided eye movements into separate elements such as the number and length of eye contacts, blink rate, dilation of the pupils and so forth. Here again, the interpretation of these cues is highly dependent on the culture of the participants. A prolonged stare may establish a bond of trust, or destroy it. It may elicit a reply from the person being stared at, or it may make them become uncommunicative from embarrassment.

This is how most of our communication takes place. When we consider the amount of nonverbal communication that passes between us and compare it with the mere words we say, it is obvious that the nonverbal part is by far the largest.

Nonverbal Communication


What you say is a vital part of any communication. But what you don’t say can be even more important. Research also shows that 55% of in-person communication comes from nonverbal cues like facial expressions, body stance, and tone of voice. According to one study, only 7% of a Receiver’s comprehension of a Message is based on the Sender’s actual words; 38% is based on paralanguage (the tone, pace, and volume of speech), and 55% is based on nonverbal cues (body language).[570]

Research shows that nonverbal cues can also affect whether you get a job offer. Judges examining videotapes of actual applicants were able to assess the social skills of job candidates with the sound turned off. They watched the rate of gesturing, time spent talking, and formality of dress to determine which candidates would be the most successful socially on the job.[571] For this reason, it is important to consider how we appear in business as well as what we say. The muscles of our faces convey our emotions. We can send a silent message without saying a word. A change in facial expression can change our emotional state. Before an interview, for example, if we focus on feeling confident, our face will convey that confidence to an interviewer. Adopting a smile (even if we’re feeling stressed) can reduce the body’s stress levels.

To be effective communicators, we need to align our body language, appearance, and tone with the words we’re trying to convey. Research shows that when individuals are lying, they are more likely to blink more frequently, shift their weight, and shrug.[572]

Another element of nonverbal communication is tone. A different tone can change the perceived meaning of a message. Table 12.2, “Don’t Use That Tone with Me!” demonstrates how clearly this can be true, whether in verbal or written communication. If we simply read these words without the added emphasis, we would be left to wonder, but the emphasis shows us how the tone conveys a great deal of information. Now you can see how changing one’s tone of voice or writing can incite or defuse a misunderstanding.

Table 12.2. Don’t Use That Tone with Me!

Placement of the emphasis What it means
I did not tell John you were late. Someone else told John you were late.
I did not tell John you were late. This did not happen.
I did not tell John you were late. I may have implied it.
I did not tell John you were late. But maybe I told Sharon and José.
I did not tell John you were late. I was talking about someone else.
I did not tell John you were late. I told him you still are late.
I did not tell John you were late. I told him you were attending another meeting.

Changing your tone can dramatically change your meaning.


For an example of the importance of nonverbal communication, imagine that you’re a customer interested in opening a new bank account. At one bank, the bank officer is dressed neatly. She looks you in the eye when she speaks. Her tone is friendly. Her words are easy to understand, yet she sounds professional. “Thank you for considering Bank of the East Coast. We appreciate this opportunity and would love to explore ways that we can work together to help your business grow,” she says with a friendly smile.

At the second bank, the bank officer’s tie is stained. He looks over your head and down at his desk as he speaks. He shifts in his seat and fidgets with his hands. His words say, “Thank you for considering Bank of the West Coast. We appreciate this opportunity and would love to explore ways that we can work together to help your business grow,” but he mumbles, and his voice conveys no enthusiasm or warmth.

Which bank would you choose?

The speaker’s body language must match his or her words. If a Sender’s words and body language don’t match—if a Sender smiles while telling a sad tale, for example—the mismatch between verbal and nonverbal cues can cause a Receiver to actively dislike the Sender.

Here are a few examples of nonverbal cues that can support or detract from a Sender’s Message.

A simple rule of thumb is that simplicity, directness, and warmth convey sincerity. And sincerity is key to effective communication. A firm handshake, given with a warm, dry hand, is a great way to establish trust. A weak, clammy handshake conveys a lack of trustworthiness. Gnawing one’s lip conveys uncertainty. A direct smile conveys confidence.

In business, the style and duration of eye contact considered appropriate vary greatly across cultures. In the United States, looking someone in the eye (for about a second) is considered a sign of trustworthiness.

The human face can produce thousands of different expressions. These expressions have been decoded by experts as corresponding to hundreds of different emotional states.[573] Our faces convey basic information to the outside world. Happiness is associated with an upturned mouth and slightly closed eyes; fear with an open mouth and wide-eyed stare. Flitting (“shifty”) eyes and pursed lips convey a lack of trustworthiness. The effect of facial expressions in conversation is instantaneous. Our brains may register them as “a feeling” about someone’s character.

The position of our body relative to a chair or another person is another powerful silent messenger that conveys interest, aloofness, professionalism—or lack thereof. Head up, back straight (but not rigid) implies an upright character. In interview situations, experts advise mirroring an interviewer’s tendency to lean in and settle back in her seat. The subtle repetition of the other person’s posture conveys that we are listening and responding.

Anthropologist Edward T. Hall coined the term proxemics to denote the different kinds of distance that occur between people. These distances vary between cultures. The figure below outlines the basic proxemics of everyday life and their meaning:[575]

Figure 12.14. Interpersonal Distances

Interpersonal Distances


Standing too far away from a colleague (such as a public speaking distance of more than seven feet) or too close to a colleague (intimate distance for embracing) can thwart an effective verbal communication in business.

Key Takeaway

Types of communication include verbal, written, and nonverbal. Verbal communications have the advantage of immediate feedback, are best for conveying emotions, and can involve storytelling and crucial conversations. Written communications have the advantage of asynchronicity, of reaching many readers, and are best for conveying information. Both verbal and written communications convey nonverbal messages through tone; verbal communications are also colored by body language, eye contact, facial expression, posture, touch, and space.

Improving in working on Macs

At first I found it really difficult to work on Mac computers because my previous school didn’t have Mac computers. I remember the first working day at uni and I couldn’t even locate the log out button. I thought to myself, that situation is like can’t finding the shut down button on Windows. But now after constant use at uni for my work, my knowledge and shortcuts on Macs have developed. In fact, when I’m working on Windows and on my laptop (which is Windows), I keep thinking I’m on a Mac and I used Mac shortcuts to then realise I’m on a Windows. The one fundaments I’ve learnt on Mac is that the “cmd” button on a Mac is the “ctrl” button on a Windows.

Summative evaluation

I have learnt through two of the projects (One word poster and Word & image) that my work is too literal and needs to be more subtle and think out of the box. I have to concentrate more on the form of typography and the concept of typography rather that image concepts because with the word & image my work was confusing because it had aspects of illustration and pure typography. My problem was that I did not know how to use Adobe Illustrator so I found it difficult to illustrate what I was thinking to be the same on screen. I found that my concepts in theory were good however it became lifeless on screen and didn’t convey my idea well. But I have built confidence in using Illustrator as I have had inductions and I have used other programs similar to Illustrator. With my grown confidence, I chose to then use it with my word & image task and found that my ideas looked strong and I managed to project what I was thinking onto the screen.

In addition, I discovered that I find it difficult to capture the desired effects/ images using the DSLR camera, I will need to improve in understanding the settings of a camera so I can build the fundaments on how to achieve the effects I want. I did look in the NUCA library and the city’s library but I still found it difficult to understand the terminology and information.

Surprisingly, the least project I enjoyed being the type off page became my favourite final piece with the shoe with impress carved on the sole of them. I like the photographs produced from the photo shoot with the high quality and clarity. I also enjoyed carving the shoe because personally I enjoy making things (arts and crafts) and it was a nice break from constantly using the computer to work on.

The experience in visiting The Norfolk & Norwich Association for The Blind was fascinating because it also taught me things beyond my research in visual impaired perception. Richard from the institute showed me gadgets that helped the visually impaired, how they do everyday things and I met a person who was blind who was a pleasure to meet. Even though it was part of research for my image task, it also imparted on my personal values and opened my mind too.

Usually in my school life, I’ve tended to have artist’s block where I just stop work because I have no inspiration therefore not motivated to do work. However on this course I have found myself to be motivating myself because I enjoy the course and the course content is interesting to me. This is good because then I am able to meet separate deadlines without having to stress to complete everything last minute. In addition, by being motivated, I am then able to produce dummies on time for critiques and gain feedback.

Cutting out impress on the sole of the shoe

Shut up and make things

Type of the page – I spent last night cutting out the word impress using a lino tool, we chose to do this after coming up with the idea of making a physical impression. I used a scalpel over a lino tool because it is designed to carve.

It tool me a while but I found it satisfying when it was complete. Today, me and Chris went to find a patch of land which had a sandy/ peaty or muddy area. We found a patch of peaty soil in the park opposite the Norwich Playhouse. I thought the photos came out really well and that it was a successful outcome.

Unsuccessful catapult

Shut up and make things

Me and Chris tried to make a catapult using cardboard, however it wasn’t strong enough to withstand the tension from the elastic band. As seen in the photo below the cardboard strips have bent:

I used a lighter to singe the letters I cut out using a scalpel, however fire is unpredictable and it burnt out some of the spacing between arms therefore making the letters illegible:
I think it would have worked with a stronger material such as wood or metal but if we manage to build it, it would be difficult to capture the motion of the letter flying because we are inexperienced with using a DSLR camera.

Evaluation: 5. Word and image

I chose the text “An Exaltation of Larks” by James Lipton and I was going to produce a booklet however after completing rough sketches, I discovered that the work would communicate better in a series of posters illustrating his main text as I consider it to be most important. I chose the page layout to be square because it looks more complete as a series placed beside each other and they also could be tiled as well. I presented my ideas to my tutor but he thought that my ideas to be too literal (as realised in one word poster project), therefore I researched into the game “Dingbats” which I played in my childhood. This game uses layout and images to express the text/ phrase. This inspired me to think more about positioning and connotations of the images. I drew some scanned sketched in my sketchbook and then developed them on Illustrator. I had not worked on Illustrator in depth before therefore the technical induction experience helped me and overtime this developed my skills in the program, especially when using the pen tool, anchor points because initially I could create smooth curves but now I have learnt keyboard shortcuts and the different ways in using the pen tool. I have learnt throughout the projects set that I have to be less literal and that I need to work with form of typefaces.

Evaluation: 4. Unknowing the city

Initially I had no direction of where to take with the project because I had no idea of what the final piece would be. But to inspire me, I explored paths I had never been before; this was a good opportunity to take photos of the “unknown” city, in addition to build my geographic knowledge of Norwich. I took images I personally found visually interesting, though I did walk through busy parts of the city; I tried to experiment with different perspectives (close ups, high/ low angles). After collecting the series of images, I still had no idea for a final piece. However, the image that inspired me was the shot of the The Forum roof that looked like an eye. My direction for the project was going to be images what visually impaired would view of the city – the city can be unknown to them through sight. Everyday is more unknown to them compared to people who have full sight. I expanded my research by contacting Norfolk & Norwich Association of The Blind and arranged to have a consultation. I tried on goggles that simulated different types of visual impairment and found this fascinating. This helped me get the perspective to achieve with the images. I experimented with a pinhole through black card, motion blur, black paint and Vaseline on acetate in front of the lens.

Evaluation: 3. Shut up & make things

I was initially thrown off with the concept of having to work with someone I didn’t know because I was scared we would have clashing ideas or that we would not communicate and resulting in me having to produce all the work. I didn’t know but reflecting back, I think we worked well because we communicated to each other if we had new ideas and the progress of the work. We both sat down and selected the verbs that we chose that we were happy to take further and develop, we both chose one and then decided on the final one together. We both worked at “to fire” idea first but then after constructing it in real life, we discovered it wouldn’t work in real life as the catapult was too flimsy. Chris developed the idea of “to light” by experimenting with different effects. We went back to the idea of “to impress” where Chris researched into sand footprints which then we thought of making a shoe with the word carved on it. I used the lino tool to cut the word and we took photos in context (in the park opposite the Norwich Playhouse). Reflecting back, I would have tried different soils/ effects with the shoe such as making water footprints, but I’m happy with the result of the final outcome but with the photos, the word impress could have been more significant in the image by applying more pressure to the shoe.

Checking my contextual work

Contextual studies

I wasn’t sure if I completed the evaluation correctly or whether it was detailed enough so I asked Martin for his feedback. He said everything is fine but added a few comments on adding “see notes” when referencing artists so then I can print a copy of the artist’s work in additional notes.

Plus I was unsure whether I was referencing videos correctly because I visited the NUCA website then visited another website which was saying a different thing. I am going to ask the librarian at the NUCA library for their opinion.

Alterations made to text & image posters

Word & image

I reworked on the shape of the “S” to make it more curved and make the “eal” more enclosed in the “S’s” so they are more of a unit and more of a pod. I cleaned up the lines as well to make it look more professional.

The lips are constructed with “}” and I reshaped the character to make it appear more pouting yet still retain the identity of the “}”. In addition, I changed the colours of the semi colons to express different types of girls and express more of a personality of the punctuation marks.

I removed the branch and replaced it with a “Y” to feature type, I cleaned up the lines by using paths and a single stroke and I removed the claw shapes.

I removed the leaves so the poster is pure typography.

6. Bibliography

Ambrose, Gavin. (2005) Basic design Colour. Lausanne: AVA Publishing.

Anonymous. (2009). The London 2012 Logo: Winner or Loser?. Available: http://www.logodesignworks.co.uk/blog/the-london-2012-olympics-logo-winner-or-loser. Last accessed 19 Oct 2011.

Anonymous. (2011). Trendy London 2012 logo branded a flop. Available: http://www.metro.co.uk/news/51690-trendy-london-2012-logo-branded-a-flop. Last accessed 15 Nov 2011.

Batchelor, D. (1997) Minimalism. London: Tate Gallery.

Bryon, Lee. (2008). Passing the Torch: An Evolution of Form. Available: http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2008/08/01/sports/20080802_TORCH_GRAPHIC.html?src=rss. Last accessed 07 Nov 2011.

Buchholz, A. (2000) What makes winning brands different : the hidden method behind the world’s most successful brands. New York: Wiley.

Cass, Jacob. (2009). What makes a good logo?. Available: http://justcreativedesign.com/2009/07/27/what-makes-a-good-logo/. Last accessed 31 Oct 2011.

DiFrisco, Michael. (2009). Logo Design Theory: Branding with Your Logo. Available: http://www.how-to-branding.com/Logo-Design-Theory.html. Last accessed 31 Oct 2011.

Evad. (2008). Design and Branding Trends: Olympic Games. Available: http://www.colourlovers.com/blog/2008/08/18/design-and-branding-trends-olympic-games/. Last accessed 02 Nov 2011.

Farquhar, Gordon. (2010) London 2012 unveils Games mascots Wenlock & Mandeville. [Online]. Monday 7th March 2011.Available from <http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/olympic_games/london_2012/8690467.stm&gt; Accessed 15 Nov 2011.

Gallagher, Mark. (2009). What is branding. Available: http://www.blackcoffee.com/assets/pdfs/What-is-Branding.pdf -. Last accessed 31 Oct 2011.

Klanten, R. and Hellige, H. (2009) Naive : modernism and folklore in contemporary graphic design. Berlin: Gestalten.

Kommunikation. (2011). Design Manuals. Available: http://www.theolympicdesign.com/deu/olympic-collection/classification/design-manuals/. Last accessed 07 Nov 2011.

Mirko. (2008). Design at the Beijing Olympic games. Available: http://www.designer-daily.com/design-at-the-beijing-olympic-games-985. Last accessed 02 Nov 2011.

Pawson, J. (1996) Minimum. London: Phaidon.

Riesreport, (2008) Shape of a Logo. [YouTube video] Available at <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GZ0W-_9gTH8&feature=player_embedded#!&gt; Accessed 31 Oct 2011.

Sinclair, Mark. (2007). London 2012. Well, at least it doesn’t have Big Ben on it. Available: http://www.creativereview.co.uk/cr-blog/2007/june/london-2012-well-at-least-it-doesnt-have-big-ben-on-it. Last accessed 19 Oct 2011.

Yew, W. (1996) Olympic image : the first 100 years. Alberta: Quon Editions.

Lecture notes – Tuesday 15th November 2011 – Simon Loxley

William Morris

– “books are priced high yet he is a socialist”

– pre rafalites

– female models of red wavy flowly hair

– during William Morris there was medieval interest

– Edward Johnson

– Thomas Cobden – Sanderson > when Morris dies, thought set up private press > “The Dove” pub

– “tonality” > greyness

– Thomas Cobden – Sanderson with Emery Walker > both create “Dove” font

– Sanderson and Walker broke up> Sanderson threw matrixes into river on Hammersmith bridge > think that font is religous

– tried to recreate later but eyesight was poor from old age

Stitching my booklet

Type on the page

I precisely sewed the spine of the booklet with black thread and 5mm spacing. I think it looks good and professional personally.

I sewed the running stitch tightly so it isn’t that noticeable which is good plus is binds the entire booklet securely:

Type off the page

Even though the text is actually on the page but the three dimension makes it off the page. I like the intricate design and how delicate the piece it. The white text held against the black background it strong:

I like the overflowing of the letters and how carefully they are arranged on the wire, this must have taken a long time to compile:




V. Ryan © 2004

Embossing involves raising areas of a card surface above the level of the rest. The diagram below shows a coat of arms that has been embossed on green card. The images stands out from the card as it has been produced by a stamp which presses the card to the correct shape. This process adds cost to the printing process but gives the card a 3D effect.

Alongside the embossed version is the same coat of arms printed in colour, on paper – note the difference. Embossing usually doubles the cost of normal printing as it takes place after processes such as colour, printing and varnishing have been completed.
Normally a small area of a package may be embossed, so that it stands out. Manufacturers use embossing to make their product look more luxurious and expensive.


A good example of simple embossing can be seen below. A letter with a coat of arms is to be sent to a number of important people. To make the letter look and feel more important the coat of arms is to be embossed. This means that the coat of arms must stand out from the surface of the card / special paper.

A special embossing tool has been made with the shape of the coat of arms engraved on its base. The embossing tool is aligned with the printed coat of arms and the mallet is then used to strongly tap the embossing tool. The material underneath the letter is rubber so that the ‘blow’ from the mallet / embossing tool is absorbed and yet allows the embossed area of the paper to stand out from the rest of the papers surface.

During the use of the embossing tool, the paper is reversed so that the blow is to the back of the crest of arms.

If many copies of the same embossed paper was needed, automatic printing machines can be used. These will print the coat of arms and any text and then emboss the specified area. Thousands of copies can be produced accurately.

Lino cutting


What is Lino Printing?

Lino Printing or Lino Cutting as it is also known is a block printing technique.  Lino printing is quite a simple process and as a result is it widely used in schools.  It is a great way to introduce children to the art of printmaking.  Lino Printing is a popular print making technique using by many professional artists.  Lino printing was originally held in low esteem by the art world until Pablo Picasso made a series of lino prints in the 1950s.  Some samples of his work can be found in this book. (46% off the price and free delivery worldwide)

What does Lino Printing involve?

Firstly a design is choose to be printed.  A mirror image of this design is transfered to the lino block.  Typically this is done using tracing paper or sometimes the sketch is made directly to the lino block.  It depends on how confident you are in your mirror image sketching abilities.
Areas of the design are then carved from the lino block.  The uncarved areas of the block are the parts that get printed.  At this point the lino block is inked with use of a roller and printed onto paper for fabric.  Typically this printing process is carried out manually but it can also be done using a printing press.  For most people the manually process is just fine but if you are looking for professional quality prints then a printing press is the next step.
Prints can be made using one or more colours.  If you use just one colour then the print is complete at this stage.  If  you use multiple colours then once the first print is finished the lino block is cleaned and dried.  Another section of the lino block is then carved.  The section that has been carved will not be printed for the subsequent colour.  The process continues until all of the colours have been printed.
———– ———- ———–

Lino-Cutting Tips

An Artist is Only as Good as His Tools

If you’ve got a set of those plasticky things they torture GCSE art students with chuck them away. Cheap tools are potentially dangerous; badly designed handles reduce control and blunt blades skid through lino unpredictably. They also make for disappointing results and disaffected students.

Good tools last a lifetime or more, will improve with judicious sharpening, and retain value on the second hand market (so you could eBay them if crisis strikes!).

Don’t be Conned Into Buying the Whole Range

Three or four is enough for most people, at least to start with. If you’re using a press, the size of your lino-cuts will be restricted to suit the machine so choose tools to scale. There’s no point having a tool the size of a spade if you’ve got an Adana 5 x 3.


Soften with Linseed Oil

Put a drop of linseed oil on a rag and rub it over the surface of your lino. It’s traditionally thought to keep the lino supple. Do this before you warm the lino, and it’ll sink in nicely.


Heat Your Lino Gently to Make it Easier to Work With

Don’t get it too hot or it will warp badly; try holding it over a light-bulb (not a fluorescent one!), put it near a radiator, in bright sunshine (if you live in a country so blessed) or try a hair drier on a low/medium heat setting.

Your tools will glide through the lino, it won’t tear with jagged edges and you can create finer detail. You’ll notice as soon as the effects wear off, and you’ll wonder why no one told you about warm lino before!


Rub a Little White Watercolour Paint Over the Surface

This creates a greater contrast between the printing surface and the cut-away areas, so it’s easier to see what you’re doing. Wipe it off with a damp cloth when you’ve finished.


Cut Deeper for Letterpress

If you’re used to printing with a hand-roller, the back of a spoon or a proofing press, you’ll almost certainly need to cut your lino deeper to get a good print with a proper press, because of the increased pressure. Otherwise the white space will start to take ink and your fine detail will fill up, especially on longer runs. For the same reason, don’t buy thin lino!

ow deep should you cut? In solid areas of your design, as in Fig B, you can cut quite shallow details (as little as 3pt deep, for the finest detail) because there’s plenty of lino around it to bear the pressure. If you’ve got a large area of white space with a few spots of detail, as in Fig A, you need to cut at least twice as deep to prevent the cut-away area from printing.Large areas of white space should be cut as deep as possible without going through to the backing, especially around the edges of the lino (the edges which the rollers hit first and last need extra attention).

If you want to save the detail in an existing lino-cut, and cutting deeper isn’t an option, you can take a print (it must be in black ink on bright white paper) with your trusty spoon, and get it made into a nylon block (or metal if the detail is exceptionally fine) for reproduction on a grander scale.

Mount with 2″ Double Sided Tape

Double sided tape can be removed with minimal damage and, with a bit of luck, you’ll be able to reuse both mount and lino-cut.

  • Stick the tape onto the back of the lino, butting up the edges evenly to prevent bumpy overlaps (use the widest tape you can get) and trim round.
  • Turn the lino the right way up and press down firmly to get rid of any air bubbles in the tape underneath.
  • Peel off the backing and press firmly onto your mount.
  • Obstinate bubbles can be prodded with a pin!

You’ll find more detail in the Getting Started… Block Mounting guide.

When All Else Fails, Make a Block

It happens to everyone; you’ve almost finished and then, with one slip of your hand, someone’s lost an ear. Or a leg. Whilst some accidents can be incorporated into the design, some seem heart-breakingly final.

Unless the damaged area is separated from the rest of your design by lots of white space, don’t listen to anyone who tells you to cut around the mistake and insert a new piece of lino into the hole. This can be done, but doing it well is a lot harder than it sounds. You’re very likely to ruin the whole thing. So why not take a print (black ink/white paper), fill in the gap in the proof with indian ink and have a nylon block made? It’s not quite the same as the ‘real’ thing, but needs must!

5. Evaluation

I have chosen the topic of Olympics because of how controversial it is from the branding to the ticketing system, in addition it is current news and that it is relevant to myself as I live on the outskirts of London. I particularly found the design for the Olympics to be interesting from the logo to the mascots to the recently released posters. The research method I used was to use the library to gather information about design styles and design principles (such colours, layouts and branding). I read books about the history of the Olympics and the different sport events within it. Then I used the internet to search for relevant articles related to the Olympics and to get a wider perspective of views on the latest event. Also the internet connects users from across the world therefore there would be a larger range of content and that I could view past Olympic designs – some websites gave me the option of interactivity and made researching more enjoyable.

I found that the series of Ambrose and Harris’ books to be useful because it gave information of design principles and theories. The book “Olympic Image” was relatively interesting too because it featured colour photos of each countries Olympic style which help me understand the different countries design style and how it compares to London 2012.

With research, it has impacted on my thinking of the London 2012 logo where that now I don’t have a strong dislike for the logo because I now understand that the design has a reason for the simplistic style and appreciate it through research about minimalism (as my personal taste opposite to minimalism). In addition, the logo is good in the sense that it is flexible where the fill can have anything inside e.g. a pattern or a texture. I think the methods I have used to be successful but initially I found that finding information about the design aspect of the Olympics to be difficult as I had used the library first and they did not have any content on the Olympics specifically. But the method using the internet was successful because I found a lot of relevant and useful content about the design aspect of the Olympics. Some material I had found was not really relevant to my topic such as with some of the branding books I read was too niche towards business branding businesses rather than an international events and the history of Olympics weren’t particularly helpful because I wanted to know mainly about the current 2012 Olympics rather than how it was originated.

4. Referencing

“The IOC encourages the cities that host the Games to conceive a unique artistic design which reflects both the local spirit and culture and the Olympic ideals” Yew, W. (1996) Olympic image: the first 100 years. Alberta: Quon Editions.

“The dramatic new logo has been written in trendy jagged street writing, favoured by electro bands, and comes in bright shades of pink, blue, green and orange. Branding experts say the style which is very fashionable at the moment as an 1980s pastiche will be completely dated when the games actually take place in five years time.” Anonymous. (2011). Trendy London 2012 logo branded a flop. Available: http://www.metro.co.uk/news/51690-trendy-london-2012-logo-branded-a-flop. Last accessed 15 Nov 2011.

“Our original brief asked us to create a mascot, which will engage and kind of get young people across the UK into sports. The mascots have been designed for the digital age, the eyes are actually a camera so it allows them to record and examine things on their journey. The also have the British icon, the taxi headlights. The Wenlock head shape is based on the Olympic stadium; the lighting towers and also represents the three Olympic podiums. Mandeville is based on the Paralympic symbol…I think mascots are important to the games because they connect people to the games, very tangible product.”  Farquhar, Gordon. (2010) London 2012 unveils Games mascots Wenlock & Mandeville. [Online]. Monday 7th March 2011.Available from <http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/olympic_games/london_2012/8690467.stm&gt; Accessed 15 Nov 2011.

3. Annotated image – London 2012 logo

The geometric form and solid colour fills caused controversy that it resembled children’s work due to the simplistic appearance. The abstract style resembles paper cut-outs (similar style to Henri Matisse, Blue Nude II) and can be criticised that it is illegible. The corners of the individual figures are angular; the designer appears to want to portray the London Olympics to be edgy and futuristic.

Pink is a “warm, exciting, fun” colour and “as the amount of red increases, it becomes more vivid and youthful”.  A strong hue of red in the pink and the hue of the yellow is bright, connoting that it will be fresh, fun and exciting.

The colours used don’t resemble any significance to traditional British colours, which seems odd as an Olympic logo usually symbolises the country (e.g. Beijing Olympics had Chinese writing brush strokes and the flag colour of red).

The word ‘London” and the Olympic rings are embedded in the main body of the logo, the Olympic rings are used to signify the counter in the ‘0’. Personally I think that without the Olympic Rings and the ‘London’ embedded, it would be difficult to recognise what the logo was for.

The logo was accused to resemble racist images, where the logo looked like the swastika with the hard edges. In addition, the logo resembled sexual acts and resembled the word of ‘Zion’. The word ‘2012’ has been broken up into two parts, this could be because of how people say the pronounce it as “twenty twelve”. But it is said that most effective logos are in the proportion of 2.25:1:25, so the layout of two lines would be successful.

Motivating checklist

I have found that making a checklist the night before is really motivating the next day because I then know what I am going to do and it is motivating when it is ticked off. I try to make my checklist realistic so then it would be achievable and motivating rather than depressing and being stressed. This was the list I made yesterday night and have ticked off today:

Choosing a layout for the image poster

Unknowing the city

I’m undecided on which layout to have for my image poster, I experimented with the different combinations of the series of photos. But I like the one where the four smaller eye images have distributed spacing vertically and the top small eye has a slighter greater space – all the photos are positioned higher up on the page leaving a greater amount of white space at the bottom.

I chose to position the photos higher up because I read “The Layout Book” by Ambrose/ Harris and they said that people don’t look right in the centre/ middle of the page but high middle.

2. Annotated text – Branding

Branding is a form of a promise in where they market their products to meet consumer’s expectations. Branding can be a form of a name, symbol, sign or device which can help consumers differentiate the person’s/ business’s product from competitors. It was said that it was first used on branding animals in England to show ownership, whilst later, Wedgewood used branding was used to connote quality.

By establishing a brand, it can create can create intangible value where the brand can portray a certain aura or reputation (e.g. quality) making the launch of new products to consumers easier as they are a trusted brand. It is used to differentiate from competitors and this could be in the form of visual applications such as packaging, form, colours, fonts and these would be based on the brand’s style.

Brands can associate with our senses either it be the product itself or the environment the brand is located, e.g. supermarket and with these senses, it is a system for differentiation. In addition, the concept branding can be attached to the concept of marketing where the most successful brands usually have a unique selling point where it is then advertised to customers.

3. Annotated image (old)

The simplistic form with geometric shapes and solid colour fills caused controversy that the logo resembled a child’s word because it appeared too simplistic. The abstract style resembles paper collage cutouts (similar style technique to Henri Matisse, Blue Nude II) and can be criticized that it is illegible. The corners of the individual figures are sharp and angular, the designer appears to want to portray the London Olympics to be edgy and futuristic, the designer even did not use curves on the ‘0’ figure.

The shade used for the sequence of logos are relatively bright which can connote that the upcoming Olympics are fresh. Pink is a “warm, exciting, fun” colour and “as the amount of red increases, it becomes more vivid and youthful”. There is a strong hue of red in the pink and the hue of the yellow is bright, therefore the logo gives the impression of fun and exciting.

The colours used does not resemble any significance to traditional British colours (red, white and blue) which seemed odd as an Olympic logo usually symbolises the country (e.g. Bejing olympics in the style of Chinese writing brush strokes and the flag colour of red).

The word ‘London” and the Olympic rings are embedded in the main body of the logo, the Olympic rings are used to signify the counter in the ‘0’. The typeface used on the word ‘London’ is used throughout their promotional material, the style is italic which is difficult to read and the font is geometric (circles for ‘o’ and triangle ‘n’).

There were cases that the logo was accused to resemble racist images, where the logo looked like the swastika with the hard edges. Other accusation was that the logo resembled sexual acts and resembled the word of ‘Zion’. The word ‘2012’ has been broken up into two parts of ‘20’ and ‘12’, this could be because of how people say the pronounce the word as “twenty twelve”, therefore it is broken up. But it is said that most effective logos are in the proportion of 2.25:1:25, therefore by setting it in two lines then it would be more successful.

Are you a design nerd?


I think I need to own these sets of graphic design triva questions just for personal interest and to test my knowledge.

DESIGNerd is a new trivia game venture, devised by Brisbane-based graphic designer Kevin Finn of Finn Creative. The first three limited edition packs of ‘100+ Graphic Design Questions by’ have recently launched with each pack’s questions devised by a different designer…

Kevin Finn set the questions (each printed on its own card with bonus points available for extra knowledge) for Volume 1, Steven Heller and Lita Talarico devised the questions for Volume 2, and Stefan Sagmeister has concocted the quiz questions for Volume 3, soon to be released.

We’ve dipped in to the Heller + Talarico pack to test our knowledge. Here are a couple of questions to give you a flavour of the geekery required to be a contender in a game of DESIGNerd:

Who designed the title sequence for the movie ‘Seven’ which introduced scratchy, layered, post-modern typography to film title design?

In 1989, Zuzana Licko designed two digital typefaces. One of them is called Lunatix. What is the other typeface called?

When did German type designer Hermann Zapf design the typefaces Melior and Optima for the Stempel Foundry?

You get the idea. Try answering without using the internet!

Each pack is limited to just 1000 issues and comes housed in a rather nice round-edged tin which is personalised by the contributing designer’s own hand drawn rendering of ‘100+’ on the front and then their hand drawn question mark on the back. Good job the packaging is sturdy, re-usable and beautifully made: each pack is priced at AUS$75 which works out at a rather pricey £48 (US$77) by today’s exchange rates. On the plus side, if you live with or spend a lot of time with design nerds, this game will test and increase your knowledge like no other trivia game.

Finn is also developing series of similar ‘100+’ packs that compile trivia questions by luminaries in teh fields of Architecture, Product Design, and also Fashion Design.

John Lewis tugs those xmas heartstrings again


They’ve done it again: Adam & Eve’s new Christmas ad for John Lewis tugs at a nation’s heartstrings as a little boy awaits the special day

The ad is entitled The Long Wait and was directed by Dougal Wilson. If the reaction on Twitter is anything to go by, it’s another winner, although Charlie Brooker is attempting to spread the idea that, at the end, that box contains a nasty surprise…

Here’s the making-of film

Georgia and Verdana typefaces redrawn


Matthew Carter, who designed the Georgia and Verdana typefaces in the 1990s, has updated them to be better suited to mobile and tablet devices.


The Georgia Pro and Verdana Pro typefaces, which are being released by Monotype Imaging, have been updated to feature 20 weights and new character sets.

New weights include a light, semibold and black, each with matching italics, in addition to new condensed families.

Carter has worked with Monotype Imaging’s Tom Rickner, who worked on the orginal typefaces, while Font Bureau’s David Berlow has worked on Verdana Pro and Monotype Imaging’s Steve Matteson on Georgia Pro.


The original typefaces were developed for Microsoft’s Core Fonts for the Web pack. Allan Haley, director of words and letters at Monotype Imaging, says, ‘Georgia and Verdana represented major milestones in the 1990s because they worked so well on-screen and were among the first Web-safe fonts.’

He adds, ‘However, with four fonts each, they were limited in their use. The new Pro versions empower these highly legible, tried-and-true designs with newfound typographic versatility.’

Matteson says, ‘The enhancements to the families are significant – especially in this new age of Web fonts. With the explosion of devices that provide for on-screen reading experiences, these fonts are more relevant than ever.’

Lecture notes – Wednesday 12th October 2011 – Nic Maffei

– NUCA library online resource

> Keynote

> library computer system

> Athens


–  Social media as research tool

> Twitter

> Academia.edu (searching articles)

> LinkedIn > D&AD

> Flickr (library of congress, American newspapers from history)

– Blog aggregators (feeds all blogs to one site)

> Google reader

> Behance network

– Visual databases

> VADS (www.vads.ac.uk, especially looking at Tom Eckersley)

– Museum collections

> Museum of modern art, – V&A

– Newspapers online

> Google news

> British library

> Library of congress

– Design blogs

> designobserver

> eyemagazine

> underconsideration

> individual > “the death of print”

> container list (Milton Glaser)

– Digitalised magazines


– professional associates

> AIGA (American Institute of Graphic Artists)

Experimenting with different photography effects

Unknowing the city

I bought some acetate and looked at the different visual effects that the visually impaired see. These are the different materials and effects I used/ created:

– black painted spodges on acetate in front of lens > for macular degeneration (where black dots are in view and no pattern is the same like how fingerprints are unique)

– black pin pricked card in front of lens > glaucoma (where you can only see small circle view with a black outside)

– vaseline smeared on acetate in front of lens > cataracts (cloudy)

– thickly smeared vaseline on acetate in front of lens > light/ dark perception (light/ dark)

– slow shutter speed/ aperture > short sighted (blur in background)

Evaluation: 2. Typography booklet

I enjoy making publications; I browsed through existing layouts and styles through the library and the internet. Then I tried a basic layout of using grids, using a consistent layout throughout the pages, using the colour theme of black and cyan. However I found this to be visually plain so then I tried to add the colour of orange to contrast against the cyan so it became vibrant. But still I found the booklet to be boring and after investigation, I realised it was because of the layout as it was being pedestrian being title to the left, main body text to the right. In addition I though the booklet was cluttered and needed to be simplified. Therefore I completely changed the layout of the booklet with large-scale typeface text on the left page and the main information on the right page because I had found that most people’s attention is on the right side when they flick through pages. By having each typeface styles on a double page spread, this had increased the amount of pages. I completed the contents of the booklet but had trouble in deciding the design of the covers. I experimented with different layouts but after experimentation, I thought it would work best with the colour theme of the booklet.

Evaluation: 1. One word poster

I had loads of ideas initially but after feedback, I realised that my work was too literal and that the one word poster had to be subtler so that the audience would stop and think about the meaning. I found that using computers to produce intricate designs was time consuming especially when I wanted to produce my own type; therefore I decided to sketch the designs and render them myself. Personally I thought two of my ideas were clichéd, communicate being in using the telephone cord to produce the letter and vanity in the use of the mirror. I tried to change the vanity poster to become unique by producing my own vanity themed form letters. The feedback I received about the vanity poster was that it would work well if my presentation skills were good.  I used watercolour paints and pencils for the poster but I found that the poster was not strong enough because the separate letters stood individually and didn’t communicate the word well.

I had an idea of trace where I drew the word trace in the air and the camera would capture the motion in a blur. I asked a photography student friend to assist me to capture this effect however the concept I had did not work in real life. I borrowed a DSLR camera then searched thoroughly on the internet and photography books to try and teach myself how to create the effect but I could not find the answer.

The piece that was one of the ones that I was least keen became the direction for my final outcome. At first I was thinking of many zoom words builds a big zoom word but then this concept was pushed further with the concept of pixilation and how that images can appear pixelated when zoomed in but are legible when zoomed out. I then experimented with the amount of pixels required for the image to be no longer legible; it appeared that 10 pixels per inch on A2 worked the best in the end.

Feedback for word and image

Word & image

Feedback for word and image: Type needs to build the image not the other way round. Not too keen on the bear poster because it’s too literal with the claw and you could swap the tree with a letter “Y”. It’s looking too illustrative at the moment and it’s getting confusing because some of the posters are pure type which it should be.

Lecture notes – Thursday 10th November 2011 – Gareth Bayliss


– Francessca Woodman (died at 22)

– Arthur Fellig (morbid process of radio scanning police cars to get pictures of the crime scene before the police)

– Margaret Calvert > roadsigns

– Ott Aicher > how much you can take away


– James Joyce

Putting image together:

– Robert Rauschenberg (collage style, liquid light)

– “putting them together to get narrative”

Recyled old goods:

– Jean Tingwely

– Daniel Eatock > felt tip pens (slodges of ink)

Deciding on the theme Olympics

Contextual studies

After deciding on the theme Olympics from looking at my image analysis, I thought I might keep the research for the logo and delve in deeper into the theme of Olympics. I borrowed some books based on subject around Olympics such as branding and logos. I tried to find some books specifically about Olmypic design but only found one and gave a history on the past Olympic events in different countries.

Illustrator live trace

Word & image

The technical induction I had with Ella has come in useful because if I didn not know of this feature, I would have spent hours in using the pen tool anchors to trace round the sketches I have. But today I scanned in my sketches, live traced, live painted and just made some minor edits.

What colour deficient people see


I researched into colour blindness and came across different types of colour blindness. I am going to adjust the images in Photoshop to achieve this effect by reducing the saturation and adjusting the hue. I was thinking to take a photo of something vibrant to demonstrate the impact of this condition.

What’s it like to be visually impaired?

I researched into different forms of visual impairment and this appears to be glaucoma, where the person can only see the central part of the image and the outside is black. The vision range is restrictive and viewing the video makes me think it must be really difficult with everyday life because the person has to scan using their eyes everywhere because they cannot view the whole picture.

Visual impairment – different types

Link http://kidshealth.org/teen/diseases_conditions/sight/visual_impairment.html#

  • Amblyopia (pronounced: am-blee-oh-pee-uh) is reduced vision in an eye caused by lack of use of that eye in early childhood. Some conditions cause a child’s eyes to send different messages to the brain (for example, one eye might focus better than the other). The brain may then turn off or suppress images from the weaker eye and vision from that eye then stops developing normally. This is also known as a “lazy eye.” Strabismus (misaligned or crossed eyes) is a common cause of amblyopia, since the brain will start to ignore messages sent by one of the misaligned eyes.
  • Cataracts are cloudy areas in part or all of the lens of the eye. In people without cataracts, the lens is crystal clear and allows light to pass through and focus on the retina. Cataracts prevent light from easily passing through the lens, and this causes loss of vision. Cataracts often form slowly and usually affect people in their 60s and 70s, but sometimes babies are born with congenital cataracts. Symptoms include double vision, cloudy or blurry vision, difficulty seeing in poorly lit spaces, and colors that seem faded.
  • Diabetic retinopathy (pronounced: reh-ton-ah-pa-thee) occurs when the tiny blood vessels in the retina are damaged due to diabetes. People with retinopathy may not have any problems seeing at first. But if the condition gets worse, they can become blind. Teens who have diabetes should be sure to get regular eye exams because there are no early warning signs for this condition. To help prevent retinopathy, people with diabetes should also avoid smoking, keep their blood pressure under control, and keep their blood sugar at an even level.
  • Glaucoma is an increase in pressure inside the eye. The increased pressure impairs vision by damaging the optic nerve. Glaucoma is mostly seen in older adults, although babies may be born with the condition and children and teens can sometimes develop it as well.
  • Macular degeneration (pronounced: mah-kyoo-lur dih-jeh-nuh-ray-shun) is a gradual and progressive deterioration of the macula, the most sensitive region of the retina. The condition leads to progressive loss of central vision (the ability to see fine details directly in front). Macular degeneration is often age related (it occurs in older people, especially older than 60), but sometimes it can occur in younger people. Excessive exposure to sunlight and smoking can increase the risk for age-related macular degeneration. Symptoms may include increased difficulty reading or watching TV, or distorted vision in which straight lines appear wavy or objects look larger or smaller than normal.
  • Trachoma (pronounced: truh-ko-muh) occurs when a very contagious microorganism called Chlamydia trachomatis causes inflammation in the eye. It’s often found in poor rural countries that have overcrowded living conditions and limited access to water and sanitation. Blindness due to trachoma has been virtually eliminated from the USA.

Feedback for booklet (3)

Type on the page

I checked the new cover design with Rob – he said to just reduce the size of “Typography” so that it wasn’t so tight on the edges – and chose to have it printed on eco card because I like the texture of the card so it’ll make the booklet look special and luxurious. I’m going to bind the booklet later using a needle and black thread for a running stitch so it’ll match the theme of the booklet and make it less noticable.

Reasons of why I didn’t choose other styles of binding:

Hardcover – A hard cover would not be suitable because there are only a few pages therefore there would not be a significant spine.

Comb – A comb binding would not be suitable because it allows there to be a gap where the pages are separate. Plus this would ruin the effect of the fluidity on the double page spreads especially when the sample text is across the right page as well. This is the same reason of why I wouldn’t use coil binding. In addition, where the holes/ slots are punched for the comb, detail of the booklet will be lost.

Side stitch – A side stitch would not be appropriate because detail down the gutter would be lost and there would be a deep crease/ fold on the left edge of the booklet.

Saddle stitch – This is the most appropriate beinging out of the above as it allows the reader to view the double page spread fully. However saddle stitches sometimes can allow the reader to view the pages behind.

Running stitch – I have chosen to hand stitch the booklet which gives a personal touch and also secures the booklet more in comparison to the saddle stitch. In addition it removes the potential issue that the behind pages are in view.

Books to inspire me

Word & image

As I didn’t really understand the brief that well, I went to the library and borrowed some books to get inspiration for instances when designers have used type as images. I came across “What is typography?” by David Jury and it had Atelier works. They have used characters to form people by manipulating with layout and form of the typography. This is a pure example of type as image:

In addition, I found another book, “Naive” by Gestalten, and it featured a designer, Aarron Johnson, combining to image concepts and putting them to one using illustrations. They had phrases which were similar to the brief:

It’s combining two ideas in a series of one such as with “Make you point”, the designer used an image of a sharpener and a target to express the “point” word.

How we read shown through eyetracking


  • How we read shown through eyetracking
  • How you read left aligned text…
  • How you read left aligned text…
  • Left aligned text lets you read fluently…
  • How you read centre aligned text…
  • You have to skip to different line starting positions – this makes it slower to read.
  • How you read right aligned text…
  • Again you have to skip to different line starting positions making it slower to read.
  • How you read justified text…
  • Justified text leads to uneven gaps between words which disrupts fluent reading
  • An all caps sentence destroys the word shape making word recognition slower and rereading a word more frequent
  • Use left aligned text for reading

Reaction to word & image brief

Word & image

I had no idea to what I am supposed to do in the morning, am I supposed to feature a section of the selected text or the whole of the selected text. But then I asked Rob later in the afternoon and he explained it to me and I have chosen to do “An Exaltations of larks” by James Lipton. I will created a series of images expressing the main text to feature in a booklet.

Olympic design manuals


This website is particularly useful in viewing past design publications for the Olympics, it ranges from 1964 to 2012. I found it interesting because it shows the underlying color themes, positioning, styles, structure of the different years. Scrolling through the page, you get a sense of the branding style through how the publication appears, e.g. bright colours portray the event to be busy, block dark colours portays the event to be formalistic e.g. Barcelona 1992:

It appears that most countries have used a simpistic style however, Nagona 1998 uses images and vivid colours:

Personally I find Nagona 1998 to be the least aesthetically pleasing because the colours used do not compliment each other and I find it too brash, there is not a consistent style or layout. But the designer could have chosen this idea because they wanted to distinguish their designs from the rest of the other designs. Personally the overuse of overlay with low transparency on the text makes it distracting to read the main text and get an overall impression of the publication.

Passing the torch: An evolution of form


I found this website to be appealing because it allowed the user to scroll through the torches and it zooms in to reveal fine photographic detail of the torch. The caption accompanying the photo is the correct amount for the user to retain interest and it is good for the logo to be shown too as it grabs the readers senses (from the past of when the Olympics were held) and remember what was happening in that particular time period.

Beijing Olympic designs


I have no specific interest in the major sport event that is the Olympic Games. It is way too politicized for me, and the money involved makes the whole thing look more like a big marketing opportunity than a sport reunion.

However, it is still interesting to see how designers are participating in such an event, which I’ll try to do in this article by categories.


For the current games, an amazing work has been made to create the necessary infrastructure for the games to take place. World’s most famous architects have been hired to design those stadium, the most famous probably being the National Stadium and its amazing roof, created by Herzog & De Meuron.

Update: as Jacob suggested in the comment section, here is a link to more on the buildings that shape the Beijing olympics.

beijing olympic stadium

Fashion design

Fashion design at the Olympic Games doesn’t have much to do with glamorous magazines covers, but is more a matter of engineers looking for the best material to improve performances. One of the examples of this is probably the LZR Racer high-tech swimsuits.

swimming suit

Graphic design

A lot of graphic design elements are needed to promote such an event, the most viewed probably being the logo, mascots and pictograms.

beijing olympic logo

The Beijing Olympics logo

beijing olympic pictograms

The Beijing Olympics pictograms

beijing olympic mascots

The Beijing Olympics mascots

Product design

Apart from all the marketing items, some other objects have to be designed for the Olympic Games, such as the olympic torch or the medals.

olympic torches

Recent Olympic Torches, the New York Times has a complete collection of Olympic Torches.

beijing olympic medals

Olympic medals for Beijing Games, read about it on the official website.


I don’t have any picture of the current games to share here, but sport event are a great place for photographers to work. Be sure to regularly take a look at the Big Picture blog, they surely will post some great pictures.

Update: the Big Picture did post some pictures, and they are indeed awesome!

Technical induction – Adobe Illustrator – Monday 7th November 2011

I used the shape tool and was taught how to make copy of the shape and repeated it using the “tild” buttons (as seen in the spiral). I tried using the pathfinder window to build and then break apart shapes using other shapes. In addition, I learnt how to join and then average end points which is useful for a smooth finish as seen in the eye shape on the right.

I was taught how a table can also be used as a shape and to create patterns or background, the distort tool works well with the table so then I can create different gradient background effects.  I learnt how to fill a shape with text as well and how to fill shapes with different colours by scrolling through.

I practiced using the pen tool to perfect using handles and anchors.

I created shapes and then used blend tool which then filled in the missing space between the shapes with a gradual gradient. I could then manipulate the shapes to be aligned differently.

I used to trace my images in Photoshop using the pen tool, each anchor at a time so with this feature in Illustrator, this would save a lot of time. I learnt how to “Live Trace” and “Live Paint”, I think that this would be very helpful for my projects later especially if I have an illustrative aspect.

Deciding on binding style

I think I am going to stitch my booklet as the contents needs to be viewed as double page spreads because the left page is a continuation of the right place, vice versa.

The other option is to saddle stitch (use two staples down the spine of the booklet) however if I do so, the entire spine is not bounded and that the page behind could be revealed (pattern of black/ white pages) which can disrupt the visual appearance of the booklet as a single sheet entity.

I chose not to have spiral bound (comb) because detail near edge of the page will be lost and with this particular booklet design there is detail near the edge of the page.

I chose not to have side stitch because detail near the centre of the double page spread will be lost and there would be a deep crease on the left side of the booklet for when the booklet is opened/ closed.

Design and branding trends: Olympic games


This website is really good as it summarises each Olympics with key notes on the right, Olympic images/ Olympic posters on the left and highlighted colour themes. The key notes doesn’t just feature design notes of the Olympics but also notes about the events e.g. “he ceremony was co-directed by Chinese filmmaker Zhang Yimou and Chinese choreographer Zhang Jigang. It featured a cast of over 15,000 performers, and was dubbed beforehand as “the most spectacular Olympics Opening Ceremony ever produced”.

I found this website easy to read as it had a simple scroll down vertically layout and that it gave me a better understanding and a wider perspective of design for Olympics.

How to Be Inappropriate – design by Alvaro Villanueva

Even though this is not a poster, I thought this was good to give me of what I could do with my one word poster because it captures the word “inappropriate” well. The use of image is strong and this needs to be what the one word poster has to be. The colour used for the text compliments background image well because the mustard and brown have similar hue. The word innapropriate is positioned well on the page because it is just above the act of inappropriateness which is the central focus of the book cover design.

Novum 11/11 – Making Of Cover

I love this cover design idea, it has be tactile which allows the user to participate in playing with the design. I find this unique and how 2D print can become 3D which can communicate to audiences better. It also brings an element of fun and interest even though the design uses a series of geometric shapes being a triangle. In addition, it applies one idea from digital design (triangle mesh) where three dimensional objects can be made using the computer to become tactile. The process involved to manufacture this cover would be die – cutting where an incision is made on the card using a die (a shaped blade). The triangles are of different colours and when viewed as a whole image, there is a pale big triangle in the middle. The cover has a gloss finish and it seems to be through varnish or laminating.

Yahoo News article – “Cleaner Scrubs Away £690,000 Work Of Art”


“A German museum is counting the cost after a cleaning woman mistook a valuable sculpture for an unsightly mess – and damaged it beyond repair.

The Martin Kippenberger installation entitled When It Starts Dripping From the Ceiling was on display at the Ostwall Museum in Dortmund.

The late modern master had created a tower of wooden slats under which a rubber trough was placed with a thin beige layer of paint representing dried rain water.

Taking it for a stain, the cleaner scrubbed the surface until it gleamed.

“It is now impossible to return it to its original state,” a city spokesman said.

She said the work, valued by insurers at 800,000 euros (£690,000), had been loaned to the museum by a private collector.

Cleaning crews had orders to keep 20cm (8ins) away from artworks but it was unclear if the woman had been informed of this by the contractor that employed her.

It is not the first time works of art have suffered at the hands of over-zealous cleaners.

In 1986, a ‘grease stain’ by Joseph Beuys valued at around £346,000 was mopped away at the Academy of Fine Arts in Dusseldorf, western Germany.”

Oh the amount of times these types of instances has happened before

Inspiration for Type off the page

I read an article in the Computer Arts magazine and this has given me slight inspiration on how to develop and a direction for the project.

Ariane Irlé. (November 2011). Treat your images by hand. Computer Arts. 194 (1), p71.

This style of work also reminds me of the advert that was for Mark Ronson’s album: Record Collection, with the use of strong bright colours, mixture between three dimension and two dimension plus cartoon style  from the design agency FOAM that we had a lecture on (they developed the promotional video for Mark Ronson album)

Thank you time saving tutorial! – How to print multiple images on a single page

I’m trying to print all my photos for my ‘Uknowing the City’ project on the least amount of pages so that it only shows small images of the photos. Searched around Google and found this, I’ve seen people do it in University using Adobe InDesign/ Microsoft Publisher manually scaling photos down one by one. Therefore I am very grateful to have found this!: Linkhttp://www.macworld.com/article/160198/2011/06/multipleimages.html

Creative Print Typography Layouts


Effektive CV/Poster Mailer

The leaflet appears to be in the style of a tabloid newspaper with the use of bold heavy weight font (font used similar to the font Bebas Neue). The colours used are kept to a minimal being black, blue and grey. The same shade of blue is consistently used throught the publication and the black used does not appear to be key black (CMYK) but it looks like a dark shade of grey to reduce the harshness on the publication visually and by reducing the darkness of the black – it does not entired grab all the focus.

Blue text is overlayed on some images to give a sense of colour and the heavy weight of the font makes the overlay less distrupted on the image e.g. if a light serif font was used – it may appear distracting but with the current heavy weight blue overlay it can give the whole picture better. In addition the heavy weight font blue overlay keeps in the theme of the tabloid style and breaks down the greyness of the publication.

There is a consistent use of the speech bubble which can direct the read to the main information and can set a style of the publication. Instead of using solid fills, they have used patterns so optically at a far distance it appears to be colour fill but actually it is a dotted background.

National Geographic

This publication uses a pale background with strong colours overlaid on top. The background has a radial fill so the edges have the strongest colour which then does not interfere with the main text because the main text is positioned to the centre. The text is positioned at the lower half of the page with graphics positioned at the top half of the page. There is a consitent use of font and consistent use of colours on each leaflet (different colours in each leaflet but stays to the colour theme within the leaflet). The leaflet page uses two main colours with different hues being green and orange. The second leaflet being blue and green.

I find this series of publications to have a very strong style because it uses a consistent colours of green blue and brown, the use of only two type faces and simplistic style (images are in simplistic style too). To minimise the effect of becoming plain and reducing white space, the designer has used a pattern green dot fill as a solid fill would be too overpowering. For the titles they have used highlight on the text with a solid colour fill to establish a hierachy.

Magazine Spread

Going around Norwich to take photos

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

I started to collect my photos yesterday (Wednesday 2nd November) and walked around town exploring. I started walking towards Tesco Express in town> Iceland> Sainsburys> Ber Street> Riverside> Dragons Hall> Norwich Castle. Personally I found the castle to be terrifying, it was quiet and slightly empty, the taxidermy exhibition was particularly scary because the animals were positioned in a scary pose and the lighting created a terrifying atmosphere.

Today I ventured through St Stephen Street> outside Norwich Cathedral> by the river> Cow tower> Norwich Cathedral. I found the Cow tower to be mesmerising with the height and width of it but particular the crevices on the inside of the tower. The doorway was padlocked and beside the inner doorway was a spiral staircase that was locked. I found it quite eerie taking photos of the inside of the tower because I had to get inside the doorway to take of the inner detail of the tower, pigeons made noises too which creeped me out.

On the way to the Cow Tower, I found a lot of old buildings, it looked Victorian with the arches and the materials used identifiying it to be in that time period. A site that astonished me was this elderly carehome which stood like I would have imagined it would have been in the Victorian period – I was seriously taken aback, the grass was trimmed, the building was in good condition, it looked like it was from TV shows.

I then arrived at the Norwich Cathedral, it reminded me of Harry Potter and Hogwarts. I walked in the passageways and only realised that tombstones were on the floor halfway through my journey round the cathedral. I like how decorative the building is and the way the lighting is inside the cathedral. The stain glass windows constrasts the cathedrals bricks really well, especiall the wine red stain glass.


I watched this a while ago but hadn’t blogged about it. I wanted to watch this documentary for so long but didn’t, but now I have. To other discipline students and some graphic designers found it boring. But as geeky as it sounds, I found this engaging and that it opens my eyes to how Helvetica is so widely used and the origin of the font.

I used to think that Helvetica was beautiful but with it’s thorough use, it has personally made me think to be boring although there is always going to be the universal use for the font for all sorts of situation e.g. signs and logos.

During the past year, I have contemplated what makes a good font, I have grown neutrality to the font Helvetica and more fascination for the font Comic Sans has grown. Comic Sans is such a controversial font, I do admit to using it when I was in primary school as I was influenced by teacher made posters surrounding me but once I hit secondary school I used to hate the font. I thought that I was an odd child in hating a font, but no there is something called typography and I have found a course/ career path/ career area where font matters.

I prefer how Comic Sans causes a reaction either it be love or hate however Helvetica is just overused and I see it as an emotionless font.

I noticed that Design.org have changed their layout

Instead of constant annoying scrolling it now has boxed thumbnails, but I would recommend they have a rollover feature where a small summary/ small title would pop out to sum up the image so I know what I am about to click on. Plus maybe they should have the time and date it was published in the corner of the thumbnail images

Meeting up with The Norfolk & Norwich Association for The Blind for research

Unknowing the city

Yesterday I rung The Norfolk & Norwich Association for The Blind to arrange a meeting so I can get information about the views of the visually impaired. I now have a direction for the project which was inspired by the photo of “The Forum” roof which looks like an eye.

My new direction is that how the visually impaired could know the city well yet there still is an aspect of unknowing the city because they cannot see the city fully especially that Norwich is known the the visual beautiful sites.

At the blind institute centre, I met with Richard Polley and he showed me the views of what the visually impaired would see and the different types of visually impaired conditions there are. I also met a person who was blind so I could ask questions and get a perspective from a blind person. These were the visually impaired perception glasses I tried on: